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Difference between revisions of "Synthetic human-like fakes"

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'''Definitions'''
 
<section begin=definitions-of-synthetic-human-like-fakes />
 
<section begin=definitions-of-synthetic-human-like-fakes />
When the '''[[Glossary#No camera|camera does not exist]]''', but the subject being imaged with a simulation of a (movie) camera deceives the watcher to believe it is some living or dead person it is a '''[[#Digital look-alikes|digital look-alike]]'''.
+
When the '''[[Glossary#No camera|camera does not exist]]''', but the subject being imaged with a simulation of a (movie) camera deceives the watcher to believe it is some living or dead person it is a '''[[Synthetic human-like fakes#Digital look-alikes|digital look-alike]]'''.
  
When it cannot be determined by human testing or media forensics whether some fake voice is a synthetic fake of some person's voice, or is it an actual recording made of that person's actual real voice, it is a pre-recorded '''[[#Digital sound-alikes|digital sound-alike]]'''. | [[Synthetic human-like fakes|Read more about synthetic human-like fakes]], [[Synthetic human-like fakes#Timeline of synthetic human-like fakes|examine timeline of synthetic human-like fakes]] or [[Mediatheque|view Mediatheque]]
+
When it cannot be determined by human testing or media forensics whether some fake voice is a synthetic fake of some person's voice, or is it an actual recording made of that person's actual real voice, it is a pre-recorded '''[[Synthetic human-like fakes#Digital sound-alikes|digital sound-alike]]'''.
 +
::[[Synthetic human-like fakes|Read more about '''synthetic human-like fakes''']], see who are '''[[against synthetic human-like fakes]]''' and what they are doing, what kinds of '''[[laws against synthetic filth]]''' have been formulated, [[Synthetic human-like fakes#Timeline of synthetic human-like fakes|examine the SSFWIKI '''timeline''' of synthetic human-like fakes]] or [[Mediatheque|view the '''Mediatheque''']].
 
<section end=definitions-of-synthetic-human-like-fakes />
 
<section end=definitions-of-synthetic-human-like-fakes />
  
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== Digital sound-alikes ==
 
== Digital sound-alikes ==
 +
 
[[File:Helsingin-Sanomat-2012-David-Martin-Howard-of-University-of-York-on-apporaching-digital-sound-alikes.jpg|right|thumb|338px|A picture of a cut-away titled "''Voice-terrorist could mimic a leader''" from a 2012 [[w:Helsingin Sanomat]] warning that the sound-like-anyone machines are approaching. Thank you to homie [https://pure.york.ac.uk/portal/en/researchers/david-martin-howard(ecfa9e9e-1290-464f-981a-0c70a534609e).html Prof. David Martin Howard] of the [[w:University of York]], UK and the anonymous editor for the heads-up.]]
 
[[File:Helsingin-Sanomat-2012-David-Martin-Howard-of-University-of-York-on-apporaching-digital-sound-alikes.jpg|right|thumb|338px|A picture of a cut-away titled "''Voice-terrorist could mimic a leader''" from a 2012 [[w:Helsingin Sanomat]] warning that the sound-like-anyone machines are approaching. Thank you to homie [https://pure.york.ac.uk/portal/en/researchers/david-martin-howard(ecfa9e9e-1290-464f-981a-0c70a534609e).html Prof. David Martin Howard] of the [[w:University of York]], UK and the anonymous editor for the heads-up.]]
  
Living people can defend<ref group="footnote" name="judiciary maybe not aware">Whether a suspect can defend against faked synthetic speech that sounds like him/her depends on how up-to-date the judiciary is. If no information and instructions about digital sound-alikes have been given to the judiciary, they likely will not believe the defense of denying that the recording is of the suspect's voice.</ref> themselves against digital sound-alike by denying the things the digital sound-alike says if they are presented to the target, but dead people cannot. Digital sound-alikes offer criminals new disinformation attack vectors and wreak havoc on provability.  
+
The first English speaking digital sound-alikes were first introduced in 2016 by Adobe and Deepmind, but neither of them were made publicly available.
 +
<section begin=GoogleTransferLearning2018 />
 +
Then in '''2018''' at the '''[[w:Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems]]''' (NeurIPS) the work [http://papers.nips.cc/paper/7700-transfer-learning-from-speaker-verification-to-multispeaker-text-to-speech-synthesis 'Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis'] ([https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.04558 at arXiv.org]) was presented. The pre-trained model is able to steal voices from a sample of only '''5 seconds''' with almost convincing results
 +
 
 +
The Iframe below is transcluded from [https://google.github.io/tacotron/publications/speaker_adaptation/ ''''''Audio samples from "Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis"'''''' at google.gituhub.io], the audio samples of a sound-like-anyone machine presented as at the 2018 [[w:NeurIPS]] conference by Google researchers.
 +
 
 +
Have a listen.
 +
 
 +
{{#Widget:Iframe - Audio samples from Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis by Google Research}}
 +
 
 +
Observe how good the "VCTK p240" system is at deceiving to think that it is a person that is doing the talking.
 +
 
 +
<section end=GoogleTransferLearning2018 />
 +
 
 +
''' Reporting on the sound-like-anyone-machines '''
 +
* [https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2019/05/06/artificial-intelligence-can-now-copy-your-voice-what-does-that-mean-for-humans/#617f6d872a2a '''"Artificial Intelligence Can Now Copy Your Voice: What Does That Mean For Humans?"''' May 2019 reporting at forbes.com] on [[w:Baidu Research]]'es attempt at the sound-like-anyone-machine demonstrated at the 2018 [[w:NeurIPS]] conference.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The to the right [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sR1rU3gLzQ video 'This AI Clones Your Voice After Listening for 5 Seconds' by '2 minute papers' at YouTube] describes the voice thieving machine presented by Google Research in [[w:NeurIPS|w:NeurIPS]] 2018.
 +
 
 +
{{#ev:youtube|0sR1rU3gLzQ|640px|right|Video [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sR1rU3gLzQ video 'This AI Clones Your Voice After Listening for 5 Seconds' by '2 minute papers' at YouTube] describes the voice thieving machine by Google Research in [[w:NeurIPS|w:NeurIPS]] 2018.}}
 +
 
 +
=== Documented crimes with digital sound-alikes ===
 +
In 2019 reports of crimes being committed with digital sound-alikes started surfacing. As of Jan 2022 no reports of other types of attack than fraud have been found.
 +
 
 +
==== 2019 digital sound-alike enabled fraud  ====
 +
By 2019 digital sound-alike anyone technology found its way to the hands of criminals. In '''2019''' [[w:NortonLifeLock|Symantec]] researchers knew of 3 cases where digital sound-alike technology had been used for '''[[w:crime]]'''.<ref name="Washington Post reporting on 2019 digital sound-alike fraud" />
 +
 
 +
Of these crimes the most publicized was a fraud case in March 2019 where 220,000€ were defrauded with the use of a real-time digital sound-alike.<ref name="WSJ original reporting on 2019 digital sound-alike fraud" /> The company that was the victim of this fraud had bought some kind of cyberscam insurance from French insurer [[w:Euler Hermes]] and the case came to light when Mr. Rüdiger Kirsch of Euler Hermes informed [[w:The Wall Street Journal]] about it.<ref name="Forbes reporting on 2019 digital sound-alike fraud" />
 +
 
 +
''' Reporting on the 2019 digital sound-alike enabled fraud '''
 +
* [https://www.wsj.com/articles/fraudsters-use-ai-to-mimic-ceos-voice-in-unusual-cybercrime-case-11567157402 '''''Fraudsters Used AI to Mimic CEO’s Voice in Unusual Cybercrime Case''''' at wsj.com] original reporting, date unknown, updated 2019-08-30<ref name="WSJ original reporting on 2019 digital sound-alike fraud">
 +
 
 +
{{cite web
 +
|url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/fraudsters-use-ai-to-mimic-ceos-voice-in-unusual-cybercrime-case-11567157402
 +
|title=Fraudsters Used AI to Mimic CEO’s Voice in Unusual Cybercrime Case
 +
|last=Stupp
 +
|first=Catherine
 +
|date=2019-08-30
 +
|website=[[w:wsj.com]]
 +
|publisher=[[w:The Wall Street Journal]]
 +
|access-date=2022-01-01
 +
|quote=}}
  
For these reasons the bannable '''raw materials''' i.e. covert voice models '''[[Law proposals to ban covert modeling|should be prohibited by law]]''' in order to protect humans from abuse by criminal parties.
+
</ref>
  
=== Documented digital sound-alike attacks ===
+
* [https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-48908736 '''"Fake voices 'help cyber-crooks steal cash''''" at bbc.com] July 2019 reporting <ref name="BBC reporting on 2019 digital sound-alike fraud">
* Sound like anyone technology found its way to the hands of criminals as in '''2019''' [[w:NortonLifeLock|Symantec]] researchers knew of 3 cases where technology has been used for '''[[w:crime]]'''
 
** [https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-48908736 '''"Fake voices 'help cyber-crooks steal cash''''" at bbc.com] July 2019 reporting <ref name="BBC2019">
 
 
{{cite web
 
{{cite web
 
  |url= https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-48908736
 
  |url= https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-48908736
Line 129: Line 172:
 
  |quote= }}
 
  |quote= }}
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
** [https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/09/04/an-artificial-intelligence-first-voice-mimicking-software-reportedly-used-major-theft/ '''"An artificial-intelligence first: Voice-mimicking software reportedly used in a major theft"''' at washingtonpost.com] documents a [[w:fraud]] committed with digital sound-like-anyone-machine, July 2019 reporting.<ref name="WaPo2019">
+
* [https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/09/04/an-artificial-intelligence-first-voice-mimicking-software-reportedly-used-major-theft/ '''"An artificial-intelligence first: Voice-mimicking software reportedly used in a major theft"''' at washingtonpost.com] documents a [[w:fraud]] committed with digital sound-like-anyone-machine, July 2019 reporting.<ref name="Washington Post reporting on 2019 digital sound-alike fraud">
 
{{cite web
 
{{cite web
 
  |url= https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/09/04/an-artificial-intelligence-first-voice-mimicking-software-reportedly-used-major-theft/
 
  |url= https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/09/04/an-artificial-intelligence-first-voice-mimicking-software-reportedly-used-major-theft/
Line 139: Line 182:
 
  |publisher= [[w:Washington Post]]
 
  |publisher= [[w:Washington Post]]
 
  |access-date= 2019-07-22
 
  |access-date= 2019-07-22
  |quote= }}
+
  |quote=Researchers at the cybersecurity firm Symantec said they have found at least three cases of executives’ voices being mimicked to swindle companies. Symantec declined to name the victim companies or say whether the Euler Hermes case was one of them, but it noted that the losses in one of the cases totaled millions of dollars.}}
 +
</ref>
 +
* [https://www.forbes.com/sites/jessedamiani/2019/09/03/a-voice-deepfake-was-used-to-scam-a-ceo-out-of-243000/ '''''A Voice Deepfake Was Used To Scam A CEO Out Of $243,000''''' at forbes.com], 2019-09-03 reporting<ref name="Forbes reporting on 2019 digital sound-alike fraud">
 +
 
 +
{{cite web
 +
|url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/jessedamiani/2019/09/03/a-voice-deepfake-was-used-to-scam-a-ceo-out-of-243000/
 +
|title=A Voice Deepfake Was Used To Scam A CEO Out Of $243,000
 +
|last=Damiani
 +
|first=Jesse
 +
|date=2019-09-03
 +
|website=[[w:Forbes.com]]
 +
|publisher=[[w:Forbes]]
 +
|access-date=2022-01-01
 +
|quote=According to a new report in The Wall Street Journal, the CEO of an unnamed UK-based energy firm believed he was on the phone with his boss, the chief executive of firm’s the German parent company, when he followed the orders to immediately transfer €220,000 (approx. $243,000) to the bank account of a Hungarian supplier. In fact, the voice belonged to a fraudster using AI voice technology to spoof the German chief executive. Rüdiger Kirsch of Euler Hermes Group SA, the firm’s insurance company, shared the information with WSJ.}}
 +
 
 +
</ref>
 +
 
 +
==== 2020 digital sound-alike fraud attempt ====
 +
In June 2020 fraud was attempted with a poor quality pre-recorded digital sound-alike with delivery method was voicemail. ([https://soundcloud.com/jason-koebler/redacted-clip '''Listen to a redacted clip''' at soundcloud.com]) The recipient in a tech company didn't believe the voicemail to be real and alerted the company and they realized that someone tried to scam them. The company called in Nisos to investigate the issue. Nisos analyzed the evidence and they were certain it was a fake, but had aspects of a cut-and-paste job to it. Nisos prepared [https://www.nisos.com/blog/synthetic-audio-deepfake/ a report titled '''''"The Rise of Synthetic Audio Deepfakes"''''' at nisos.com] on the issue and shared it with Motherboard, part of [[w:Vice (magazine)]] prior to its release.<ref name="Vice reporting on 2020 digital sound-alike fraud attempt">
 +
 
 +
{{cite web
 +
|url=https://www.vice.com/en/article/pkyqvb/deepfake-audio-impersonating-ceo-fraud-attempt
 +
|title=Listen to This Deepfake Audio Impersonating a CEO in Brazen Fraud Attempt
 +
|last=Franceschi-Bicchierai
 +
|first=Lorenzo
 +
|date=2020-07-23
 +
|website=[[w:Vice.com]]
 +
|publisher=[[w:Vice (magazine)]]
 +
|access-date=2022-01-03
 +
|quote=}}
 +
 
 +
 
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
----
 
  
=== 'Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis' 2018 by Google Research (external transclusion) ===
+
==== 2021 digital sound-alike enabled fraud ====
<section begin=GoogleTransferLearning2018 />
+
 
* In the '''2018''' at the '''[[w:Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems]]''' (NeurIPS) the work [http://papers.nips.cc/paper/7700-transfer-learning-from-speaker-verification-to-multispeaker-text-to-speech-synthesis 'Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis'] ([https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.04558 at arXiv.org]) was presented. The pre-trained model is able to steal voices from a sample of only '''5 seconds''' with almost convincing results
+
<section begin=2021 digital sound-alike enabled fraud />The 2nd publicly known fraud done with a digital sound-alike<ref group="1st seen in" name="2021 digital sound-alike fraud case">https://www.reddit.com/r/VocalSynthesis/</ref> took place on Friday 2021-01-15. A bank in Hong Kong was manipulated to wire money to numerous bank accounts by using a voice stolen from one of the their client company's directors. They managed to defraud $35 million of the U.A.E. based company's money.<ref name="Forbes reporting on 2021 digital sound-alike fraud">https://www.forbes.com/sites/thomasbrewster/2021/10/14/huge-bank-fraud-uses-deep-fake-voice-tech-to-steal-millions/</ref>. This case came into light when Forbes saw [https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/21085009-hackers-use-deep-voice-tech-in-400k-theft a document] where the U.A.E. financial authorities were seeking administrative assistance from the US authorities towards the end of recovering a small portion of the defrauded money that had been sent to bank accounts in the USA.<ref name="Forbes reporting on 2021 digital sound-alike fraud" />
  
Observe how good the "VCTK p240" system is at deceiving to think that it is a person that is doing the talking.
+
'''Reporting on the 2021 digital sound-alike enabled fraud'''
  
{{#Widget:Iframe - Audio samples from Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis by Google Research}}
+
* [https://www.forbes.com/sites/thomasbrewster/2021/10/14/huge-bank-fraud-uses-deep-fake-voice-tech-to-steal-millions/ '''''Fraudsters Cloned Company Director’s Voice In $35 Million Bank Heist, Police Find''''' at forbes.com] 2021-10-14 original reporting
 +
* [https://www.unite.ai/deepfaked-voice-enabled-35-million-bank-heist-in-2020/ '''''Deepfaked Voice Enabled $35 Million Bank Heist in 2020''''' at unite.ai]<ref group="1st seen in" name="2021 digital sound-alike fraud case" /> reporting updated on 2021-10-15
 +
* [https://www.aiaaic.org/aiaaic-repository/ai-and-algorithmic-incidents-and-controversies/usd-35m-voice-cloning-heist '''''USD 35m voice cloning heist''''' at aiaaic.org], October 2021 AIAAIC repository entry
 +
<section end=2021 digital sound-alike enabled fraud />
  
The Iframe above is transcluded from [https://google.github.io/tacotron/publications/speaker_adaptation/ 'Audio samples from "Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis"' at google.gituhub.io], the audio samples of a sound-like-anyone machine presented as at the 2018 [[w:NeurIPS]] conference by Google researchers.
+
=== What should we do about digital sound-alikes? ===
<section end=GoogleTransferLearning2018 />
 
  
The to the right [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sR1rU3gLzQ video 'This AI Clones Your Voice After Listening for 5 Seconds' by '2 minute papers' at YouTube] describes the voice thieving machine presented by Google Research in [[w:NeurIPS|w:NeurIPS]] 2018.
+
Living people can defend<ref group="footnote" name="judiciary maybe not aware">Whether a suspect can defend against faked synthetic speech that sounds like him/her depends on how up-to-date the judiciary is. If no information and instructions about digital sound-alikes have been given to the judiciary, they likely will not believe the defense of denying that the recording is of the suspect's voice.</ref> themselves against digital sound-alike by denying the things the digital sound-alike says if they are presented to the target, but dead people cannot. Digital sound-alikes offer criminals new disinformation attack vectors and wreak havoc on provability.  
  
{{#ev:youtube|0sR1rU3gLzQ|640px|right|Video [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sR1rU3gLzQ video 'This AI Clones Your Voice After Listening for 5 Seconds' by '2 minute papers' at YouTube] describes the voice thieving machine by Google Research in [[w:NeurIPS|w:NeurIPS]] 2018.}}
+
For these reasons the bannable '''raw materials''' i.e. covert voice models '''[[Law proposals to ban covert modeling|should be prohibited by law]]''' in order to protect humans from abuse by criminal parties.
  
----
 
  
 
=== Example of a hypothetical 4-victim digital sound-alike attack ===
 
=== Example of a hypothetical 4-victim digital sound-alike attack ===
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* '''[https://cstr-edinburgh.github.io/merlin/ Merlin]''', a [[w:neural network]] based speech synthesis system by the Centre for Speech Technology Research at the [[w:University of Edinburgh]]
 
* '''[https://cstr-edinburgh.github.io/merlin/ Merlin]''', a [[w:neural network]] based speech synthesis system by the Centre for Speech Technology Research at the [[w:University of Edinburgh]]
 
* [https://papers.nips.cc/paper/8206-neural-voice-cloning-with-a-few-samples ''''Neural Voice Cloning with a Few Samples''' at papers.nips.cc], [[w:Baidu Research]]'es shot at sound-like-anyone-machine did not convince in '''2018'''
 
* [https://papers.nips.cc/paper/8206-neural-voice-cloning-with-a-few-samples ''''Neural Voice Cloning with a Few Samples''' at papers.nips.cc], [[w:Baidu Research]]'es shot at sound-like-anyone-machine did not convince in '''2018'''
 
=== Reporting on the sound-like-anyone-machines ===
 
* [https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2019/05/06/artificial-intelligence-can-now-copy-your-voice-what-does-that-mean-for-humans/#617f6d872a2a '''"Artificial Intelligence Can Now Copy Your Voice: What Does That Mean For Humans?"''' May 2019 reporting at forbes.com] on [[w:Baidu Research]]'es attempt at the sound-like-anyone-machine demonstrated at the 2018 [[w:NeurIPS]] conference.
 
  
 
=== Temporal limit of digital sound-alikes ===
 
=== Temporal limit of digital sound-alikes ===
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[[File:Spectrogram-19thC.png|thumb|right|640px|A [[w:spectrogram]] of a male voice saying 'nineteenth century']]
 
[[File:Spectrogram-19thC.png|thumb|right|640px|A [[w:spectrogram]] of a male voice saying 'nineteenth century']]
 
== Singing syntheses ==
 
 
As of 2020 the '''digital sing-alikes''' may not yet be here, but when we hear a faked singing voice and we cannot hear that it is fake, then we will know. An ability to sing does not seem to add much hostile capabilities compared to the ability to thieve spoken word.
 
 
* [https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.11690 ''''''Fast and High-Quality Singing Voice Synthesis System based on Convolutional Neural Networks'''''' at arxiv.org], a 2019 singing voice synthesis technique using [[w:convolutional neural network|w:convolutional neural networks (CNN)]]. Accepted into the 2020 [[w:International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing|International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP)]].
 
* [http://compmus.ime.usp.br/sbcm/2019/papers/sbcm-2019-7.pdf ''''''State of art of real-time singing voice synthesis'''''' at compmus.ime.usp.br] presented at the 2019 [http://compmus.ime.usp.br/sbcm/2019/program/ 17th Brazilian Symposium on Computer Music]
 
* [http://theses.fr/2017PA066511 ''''''Synthesis and expressive transformation of singing voice'''''' at theses.fr] [https://www.theses.fr/2017PA066511.pdf as .pdf] a 2017 doctorate thesis by [http://theses.fr/227185943 Luc Ardaillon]
 
* [http://mtg.upf.edu/node/512 ''''''Synthesis of the Singing Voice by Performance Sampling and Spectral Models'''''' at mtg.upf.edu], a 2007 journal article in the [[w:IEEE Signal Processing Society]]'s Signal Processing Magazine
 
* [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/4295714_Speech-to-Singing_Synthesis_Converting_Speaking_Voices_to_Singing_Voices_by_Controlling_Acoustic_Features_Unique_to_Singing_Voices ''''''Speech-to-Singing Synthesis: Converting Speaking Voices to Singing Voices by Controlling Acoustic Features Unique to Singing Voices'''''' at researchgate.net], a November 2007 paper published in the IEEE conference on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics
 
 
 
* [[w:Category:Singing software synthesizers]]
 
  
 
== Text syntheses ==
 
== Text syntheses ==
Line 283: Line 341:
 
* [https://github.com/topics/handwriting-recognition GitHub topic '''handwriting-recognition'''] contains 238 repositories as of September 2021.
 
* [https://github.com/topics/handwriting-recognition GitHub topic '''handwriting-recognition'''] contains 238 repositories as of September 2021.
  
== Countermeasures against synthetic human-like fakes ==
+
== Singing syntheses ==
  
<section begin=APW_AI-transclusion />
+
As of 2020 the '''digital sing-alikes''' may not yet be here, but when we hear a faked singing voice and we cannot hear that it is fake, then we will know. An ability to sing does not seem to add much hostile capabilities compared to the ability to thieve spoken word.
=== Organizations against synthetic human-like fakes ===
 
  
[[File:DARPA_Logo.jpg|thumb|right|240px|The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, better known as [[w:DARPA]] has been active in the field of countering synthetic fake video for longer than the public has been aware of the problems existing.]]
+
* [https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.11690 ''''''Fast and High-Quality Singing Voice Synthesis System based on Convolutional Neural Networks'''''' at arxiv.org], a 2019 singing voice synthesis technique using [[w:convolutional neural network|w:convolutional neural networks (CNN)]]. Accepted into the 2020 [[w:International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing|International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP)]].
 +
* [http://compmus.ime.usp.br/sbcm/2019/papers/sbcm-2019-7.pdf ''''''State of art of real-time singing voice synthesis'''''' at compmus.ime.usp.br] presented at the 2019 [http://compmus.ime.usp.br/sbcm/2019/program/ 17th Brazilian Symposium on Computer Music]
 +
* [http://theses.fr/2017PA066511 ''''''Synthesis and expressive transformation of singing voice'''''' at theses.fr] [https://www.theses.fr/2017PA066511.pdf as .pdf] a 2017 doctorate thesis by [http://theses.fr/227185943 Luc Ardaillon]
 +
* [http://mtg.upf.edu/node/512 ''''''Synthesis of the Singing Voice by Performance Sampling and Spectral Models'''''' at mtg.upf.edu], a 2007 journal article in the [[w:IEEE Signal Processing Society]]'s Signal Processing Magazine
 +
* [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/4295714_Speech-to-Singing_Synthesis_Converting_Speaking_Voices_to_Singing_Voices_by_Controlling_Acoustic_Features_Unique_to_Singing_Voices ''''''Speech-to-Singing Synthesis: Converting Speaking Voices to Singing Voices by Controlling Acoustic Features Unique to Singing Voices'''''' at researchgate.net], a November 2007 paper published in the IEEE conference on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics
  
* '''[[w:DARPA]]''' ([https://www.darpa.mil/ darpa.mil]) [https://contact.darpa.mil/ contact form]<ref group="contact">
 
* '''The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency'''
 
* Contact form https://contact.darpa.mil/
 
  
* Email: outreach@darpa.mil
+
* [[w:Category:Singing software synthesizers]]
  
* Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
+
----
* 675 North Randolph Street
 
* Arlington, VA 22203-2114
 
  
* Phone 1-703-526-6630
+
= Timeline of synthetic human-like fakes =
 
+
See the #SSFWIKI '''[[Mediatheque]]''' for viewing media that is or is probably to do with synthetic human-like fakes.
 
 
</ref>[https://www.darpa.mil/program/media-forensics '''DARPA program''': ''''Media Forensics'''' ('''MediFor''') at darpa.mil] aims to develop technologies for the automated assessment of the integrity of an image or video and integrating these in an end-to-end media forensics platform. Archive.org first crawled their homepage in [https://web.archive.org/web/20160630154819/https://www.darpa.mil/program/media-forensics June '''2016''']<ref name="IA-MediFor-2016-crawl">https://web.archive.org/web/20160630154819/https://www.darpa.mil/program/media-forensics</ref>.
 
 
 
* [https://www.darpa.mil/program/semantic-forensics '''DARPA program''': ''''Semantic Forensics'''' ('''SemaFor''') at darpa.mil] aims to counter synthetic disinformation by developing systems for detecting semantic inconsistencies in forged media. They state that they hope to create technologies that "will help identify, deter, and understand adversary disinformation campaigns". More information at [[w:Duke University]]'s [https://researchfunding.duke.edu/semantic-forensics-semafor '''Research Funding database: Semantic Forensics (SemaFor)''' at researchfunding.duke.edu] and some at [https://www.grants.gov/web/grants/view-opportunity.html?oppId=319894 '''Semantic Forensics grant opportunity''' (closed Nov 2019) at grants.gov]. Archive.org first cralwed their website in [https://web.archive.org/web/20191108090036/https://www.darpa.mil/program/semantic-forensics November '''2019''']<ref name="IA-SemaFor-2019-crawl">https://web.archive.org/web/20191108090036/https://www.darpa.mil/program/semantic-forensics November</ref>
 
 
 
* '''[[w:University of Colorado Denver]]''''s College of Arts & Media<ref group="contact">
 
* '''National Center for Media Forensics''' at https://artsandmedia.ucdenver.edu
 
 
 
 
 
* Email: CAM@ucdenver.edu
 
 
 
 
 
* College of Arts & Media
 
* National Center for Media Forensics
 
* CU Denver
 
* Arts Building
 
* Suite 177
 
* 1150 10th Street
 
* Denver, CO 80204
 
* USA
 
 
 
 
 
* Phone  1-303-315-7400
 
 
 
 
 
</ref> is the home of the [https://artsandmedia.ucdenver.edu/areas-of-study/national-center-for-media-forensics/about-the-national-center-for-media-forensics '''National Center for Media Forensics''' at artsandmedia.ucdenver.edu] at the [[w:University of Colorado Denver]] offers a [https://artsandmedia.ucdenver.edu/areas-of-study/national-center-for-media-forensics/media-forensics-graduate-program Master's degree program], [https://artsandmedia.ucdenver.edu/areas-of-study/national-center-for-media-forensics/training-courses training courses] and [https://artsandmedia.ucdenver.edu/areas-of-study/national-center-for-media-forensics/national-center-for-media-forensics-research scientific basic and applied research]. [https://artsandmedia.ucdenver.edu/areas-of-study/national-center-for-media-forensics/faculty-staff Faculty staff at the NCMF]
 
 
 
* [https://www.clemson.edu/centers-institutes/watt/hub/index.html '''Media Forensics Hub''' at clemson.edu]<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''Media Forensics Hub''' at Clemson University clemson.edu
 
 
 
 
 
* Media Forensics Hub
 
* Clemson University
 
* Clemson, South Carolina 29634
 
* USA
 
 
 
 
 
* Phone 1-864-656-3311
 
 
 
</ref> at the Watt Family Innovation Center of the '''[[w:Clemson University]]''' has the aims of promoting multi-disciplinary research, collecting and facilitating discussion and ideation of challenges and solutions. They provide [https://www.clemson.edu/centers-institutes/watt/hub/resources/ resources], [https://www.clemson.edu/centers-institutes/watt/hub/connect-collab/research.html research], [https://www.clemson.edu/centers-institutes/watt/hub/connect-collab/education.html media forensics education] and are running a [https://www.clemson.edu/centers-institutes/watt/hub/connect-collab/wg-disinfo.html '''Working Group''' on '''disinformation'''].<ref group="contact">mediaforensics@clemson.edu</ref>
 
 
 
* [https://lab.witness.org/ '''The WITNESS Media Lab''' at lab.witness.org] by [[w:Witness (organization)]][https://www.witness.org/get-involved/ contact form]) ([https://www.witness.org/get-involved/ contact form])<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''WITNESS''' (Media Lab)
 
* Contact form https://www.witness.org/get-involved/ incl. mailing list subscription possiblity
 
 
 
 
 
* WITNESS
 
* 80 Hanson Place, 5th Floor
 
* Brooklyn, NY 11217
 
* USA
 
 
 
 
 
* Phone: 1.718.783.2000
 
 
 
 
 
</ref>, a human rights non-profit organization based out of Brooklyn, New York, is against synthetic filth actively since 2018. They work both in awareness raising as well as media forensics.
 
** [https://lab.witness.org/projects/osint-digital-forensics/ '''Open-source intelligence digital forensics''' - ''How do we work together to detect AI-manipulated media?'' at lab.witness.org]. "''In February '''2019''' WITNESS in association with [[w:George Washington University]] brought together a group of leading researchers in [[Glossary#Media forensics|media forensics]] and [[w:detection]] of [[w:deepfakes]] and other [[w:media manipulation]] with leading experts in social newsgathering, [[w:User-generated content]] and [[w:open-source intelligence]] ([[w:OSINT]]) verification and [[w:fact-checking]].''" (website)
 
** [https://lab.witness.org/projects/synthetic-media-and-deep-fakes/ '''Prepare, Don’t Panic: Synthetic Media and Deepfakes''' at lab.witness.org] is a summary page for WITNESS Media Lab's ongoing work against synthetic human-like fakes. Their work was launched in '''2018''' with the first multi-disciplinary convening around deepfakes preparedness which lead to the writing of the [http://witness.mediafire.com/file/q5juw7dc3a2w8p7/Deepfakes_Final.pdf/file  '''report''' “'''Mal-uses of AI-generated Synthetic Media and Deepfakes: Pragmatic Solutions Discovery Convening'''”] (dated 2018-06-11). [https://blog.witness.org/2018/07/deepfakes/ '''''Deepfakes and Synthetic Media: What should we fear? What can we do?''''' at blog.witness.org]
 
 
 
[[File:Connie Leyva 2015.jpg|thumb|right|240px|[[w:California]] [[w:California State Senate|w:Senator]] [[w:Connie Leyva]] sponsored [https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billCompareClient.xhtml?bill_id=201920200SB564&showamends=false '''California Senate Bill SB 564''' - ''Depiction of individual using digital or electronic technology: sexually explicit material: cause of action''] in Feb '''2019'''. It is identical to Assembly Bill 602 authored by [[w:Marc Berman]]. The bill was [https://www.sagaftra.org/action-alert-support-california-bill-end-deepfake-porn endorsed by SAG-AFTRA]. It became law on 1 January 2020 in the [[w:California Civil Code|w:California Civil Code]] of the [[w:California Codes]].]]
 
 
 
*  '''Screen Actors Guild - American Federation of Television and Radio Artists''' - '''[[w:SAG-AFTRA]]''' ([https://www.sagaftra.org/ sagaftra.org] [https://servicesagaftra.custhelp.com/app/ask contact form]<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''Screen Actors Guild - American Federation of Television and Radio Artists''' at https://www.sagaftra.org/
 
 
 
 
 
* Screen Actors Guild - American Federation of Television and Radio Artists
 
* 5757 Wilshire Boulevard, 7th Floor
 
* Los Angeles, California 90036
 
* USA
 
 
 
 
 
* Phone: 1-855-724-2387
 
* Email: info@sagaftra.org
 
 
 
 
 
* https://www.sagaftra.org/contact-us
 
</ref> [https://www.sagaftra.org/action-alert-support-california-bill-end-deepfake-porn SAG-AFTRA ACTION ALERT: '''"Support California Bill to End Deepfake Porn"''' at sagaftra.org '''endorses'''] [https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201920200SB564 California Senate Bill SB 564] introduced to the  [[w:California State Senate]] by [[w:California]] [[w:Connie Leyva|w:Senator Connie Leyva]] in Feb '''2019'''.
 
 
 
=== Organizations possibly against synthetic human-like fakes ===
 
 
 
Originally harvested from the study [https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2020/634452/EPRS_STU(2020)634452_EN.pdf The ethics of artificial intelligence: Issues and initiatives (.pdf)]  by the [[w:European Parliamentary Research Service]], published on the [[w:Europa (web portal)]] in March 2020.<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020">
 
 
 
{{cite web
 
|url= https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2020/634452/EPRS_STU(2020)634452_EN.pdf
 
|title= The ethics of artificial intelligence: Issues and initiatives
 
|last=
 
|first=
 
|date= March 2020
 
|website= [[w:Europa (web portal)]]
 
|publisher=[[w:European Parliamentary Research Service]]
 
|access-date=2021-02-17
 
|quote=This study deals with the ethical implications and moral questions that arise from the development and implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies.}}
 
 
 
</ref>
 
 
 
* [https://ieai.mcts.tum.de/ '''INSTITUTE FOR ETHICS IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE''' at ieai.mcts.tum.de]<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''INSTITUTE FOR ETHICS IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE'''
 
 
 
Visitor’s address
 
* Marsstrasse 40
 
* D-80335 Munich
 
 
 
Postal address
 
* INSTITUTE FOR ETHICS IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
 
* Arcisstrasse 21
 
* D-80333 Munich
 
* Germany
 
 
 
Email
 
* ieai(at)mcts.tum.de
 
 
 
Website
 
* https://ieai.mcts.tum.de
 
 
 
</ref> received initial funding from [[w:Facebook]] in 2019.<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/> [https://www.linkedin.com/company/ieaitum/ IEAI on LinkedIn.com]
 
 
 
* [https://ethical.institute/ '''The Institute for Ethical AI & Machine Learning''' at ethical.institute]([https://ethical.institute/#contact contact form] asks a lot of questions)<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
'''The Institute for Ethical AI & Machine Learning'''
 
 
 
Website https://ethical.institute/
 
 
 
Email
 
 
 
* a@ethical.institute
 
 
 
Contacted
 
* 2021-08-14 used the contact form at https://ethical.institute/#contact
 
 
 
</ref><ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/> [https://www.linkedin.com/company/the-institute-for-ethical-machine-learning/ The Institute for Ethical AI & Machine Learning on LinkedIn.com]
 
 
 
* [https://www.buckingham.ac.uk/research-the-institute-for-ethical-ai-in-education/ '''The Institute for Ethical AI in Education''' at buckingham.ac.uk]<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''The Institute for Ethical AI in Education'''
 
 
 
From
 
* https://www.buckingham.ac.uk/contact-us
 
 
 
Mail
 
* The University of Buckingham
 
* The Institute for Ethical AI in Education
 
* Hunter Street
 
* Buckingham
 
* MK18 1EG
 
* United Kingdom
 
 
 
</ref><ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/>
 
 
 
* [https://futureoflife.org/ '''Future of Life Institute''' at futureoflife.org] ([https://futureoflife.org/contact/ contact form] with also mailing list)<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
'''Future of Life Institute'''
 
 
 
Contact form
 
* https://futureoflife.org/contact/
 
 
 
* No physical contact info
 
 
 
Contacted
 
* 2021-08-14 | Subscribed to newsletter
 
 
 
</ref> received funding from private donors.<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/> See [[w:Future of Life Institute]] for more info.
 
 
 
* [https://www.ai-gakkai.or.jp/en/ '''The Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence''' ('''JSAI''') at ai-gakkai.or.jp]<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
'''The Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence'''
 
 
 
Contact info
 
* https://www.ai-gakkai.or.jp/en/about/info/
 
 
 
Mail
 
* The Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence
 
* 402, OS Bldg.
 
* 4-7 Tsukudo-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0821
 
* Japan
 
 
 
Phone
 
* 03-5261-3401
 
 
 
 
 
</ref> Publication: Ethical guidelines.<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/>
 
 
 
* [https://ai-4-all.org/ '''AI4All''' at ai-4-all.org] ([https://ai-4-all.org/contact/ contact form] with also mailing list subscription) <ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''AI4ALL'''
 
 
 
Mail
 
 
 
* AI4ALL
 
* 548 Market St
 
* PMB 95333
 
* San Francisco, California 94104
 
* USA
 
 
 
Contacted:
 
* 2021-08-14 | Subscribed to mailing list
 
 
 
</ref> funded by [[w:Google]]<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/> [https://www.linkedin.com/company/ai4allorg/ AI4All on LinkedIn.com]
 
 
 
* [https://thefuturesociety.org/ '''The Future Society''' at thefuturesociety.org] ([https://thefuturesociety.org/contact/ contact form] with also mailing list subscription)<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''The Future Society''' at thefuturesociety.org
 
 
 
Contact
 
* https://thefuturesociety.org/contact/
 
 
 
* No physical contact info
 
 
 
 
 
</ref><ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/>. Their activities include policy research, educational & leadership development programs, advisory services, seminars & summits and other special projects to advance the responsible adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and other emerging technologies.  [https://www.linkedin.com/company/thefuturesociety/ The Future Society on LinkedIn.com]
 
 
 
* [https://ainowinstitute.org/ '''The Ai Now Institute''' at ainowinstitute.org] ([https://ainowinstitute.org/contact.html contact form] and possibility to subscribe to mailing list)<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''The Ai Now Institute''' at ainowinstitute.org
 
 
 
Contact
 
* https://ainowinstitute.org/contact.html
 
 
 
Email
 
* info@ainowinstitute.org
 
 
 
Contacted
 
* 2021-08-14 | Subscribed to mailing list
 
 
 
</ref> at [[w:New York University]]<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/>. Their work is licensed under a '''Creative Commons''' Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. [https://www.linkedin.com/company/ai-now-institute/about/ The Ai Now Institute on LinkedIn.com]
 
 
 
* [https://www.partnershiponai.org/ '''Partnership on AI''' at partnershiponai.org] ([https://www.partnershiponai.org/contact/ contact form])<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''Partnership on AI''' at partnershiponai.org
 
 
 
Contact
 
* https://www.partnershiponai.org/contact/
 
 
 
Mail
 
* Partnership on AI
 
* 115 Sansome St, Ste 1200,
 
* San Francisco, CA 94104
 
* USA
 
  
</ref> is based in the USA and funded by technology companies. They provide [https://www.partnershiponai.org/resources/ resources] and have a vast amount and high caliber of [https://www.partnershiponai.org/partners/ partners]. See [[w:Partnership on AI]] and [https://www.linkedin.com/company/partnershipai/ Partnership on AI on LinkedIn.com] for more info.
+
== 2020's synthetic human-like fakes ==
  
* [https://responsiblerobotics.org/ '''The Foundation for Responsible Robotics''' at responsiblerobotics.org] ([https://responsiblerobotics.org/contact/ contact form])<ref group="contact">
+
* '''2021''' | Science and demonstration | In the NeurIPS 2021 held virtually in December researchers from Nvidia and [[w:Aalto University]] present their paper [https://nvlabs.github.io/stylegan3/ '''''Alias-Free Generative Adversarial Networks (StyleGAN3)''''' at nvlabs.github.io] and associated [https://github.com/NVlabs/stylegan3 implementation] in [[w:PyTorch]] and the results are deceivingly human-like in appearance. [https://nvlabs-fi-cdn.nvidia.com/stylegan3/stylegan3-paper.pdf StyleGAN3 paper as .pdf at nvlabs-fi-cdn.nvidia.com]
 
 
* '''The Foundation for Responsible Robotics''' at responsiblerobotics.org
 
 
 
Contact form
 
* https://responsiblerobotics.org/contact/
 
 
 
Email
 
* info@responsiblerobotics.org
 
 
 
</ref> is based in [[w:Netherlands]].<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/> [https://www.linkedin.com/company/foundation-for-responsible-robotics/about/ The Foundation for Responsible Robotics on LinkedIn.com]
 
 
 
* [https://ai4people.eu/ '''AI4People''' at ai4people.eu] ([https://ai4people.eu/contact-us/ contact form])<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''AI4People''' at ai4people.eu
 
 
 
Contact form
 
* https://ai4people.eu/contact-us/
 
 
 
* No physical contact info
 
 
 
</ref> is based in [[w:Belgium]] is a multi-stakeholder forum.<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/> [https://www.linkedin.com/company/ai-for-people/ AI4People on LinkedIn.com]
 
 
 
* [https://aiethicsinitiative.org/ '''The Ethics and Governance of Artificial Intelligence Initiative''' at aiethicsinitiative.org] is a joint project of the [https://www.media.mit.edu/ MIT Media Lab] and the [https://cyber.harvard.edu/ Harvard Berkman-Klein Center for Internet and Society] and is based in the USA.<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/>
 
 
 
* [https://www.saidot.ai/ '''Saidot''' at saidot.ai] is a Finnish company offering a platform for AI transparency, explainability and communication.<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/> [https://www.linkedin.com/company/saidot/ Saidot on LinkedIn.com]
 
 
 
* [https://www.eu-robotics.net/ '''euRobotics''' at eu-robotics.net] is funded by the [[w:European Commission]].<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/>
 
 
 
* [https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/centre-for-data-ethics-and-innovation '''Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation''' at gov.uk], part of Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport is financed by the UK govt. [https://cdei.blog.gov.uk/ '''Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation Blog''' at cdei.blog.gov.uk]<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/> [https://www.linkedin.com/company/centre-for-data-ethics-innovation/ Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation on LinkedIn.com]
 
 
 
* [http://sigai.acm.org/ '''ACM Special Interest Group on Artificial Intelligence''' at sigai.acm.org] is a [[w:Special Interest Group]] on AI by [[w:Association for Computing Machinery|ACM]]. [http://sigai.acm.org/aimatters/blog/ ''''''AI Matters: A Newsletter of ACM SIGAI'' -blog''' at sigai.acm.org] and [http://sigai.acm.org/aimatters/ the newsletter that the blog gets its contents from]<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/>
 
 
 
* [https://ethicsinaction.ieee.org/ '''IEEE Ethics in Action - in Autonomous and Intelligent Systems''' at ethicsinaction.ieee.org] (mailing list subscription on website)<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''IEEE Ethics in Action - in Autonomous and Intelligent Systems''' at ethicsinaction.ieee.org
 
 
 
Email
 
* aiopps@ieee.org
 
 
 
 
 
</ref>
 
 
 
* [https://www.counterhate.com/ '''The Center for Countering Digital Hate''' at counterhate.com] (subscribe to mailing list on website<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
Email
 
* info@counterhate.com
 
 
 
Contacted
 
* 2021-08-14 | Subscribed to mailing list
 
 
 
</ref> is an international not-for-profit NGO that seeks to disrupt the architecture of online hate and misinformation with offices in London and Washington DC.
 
 
 
* [https://carnegieendowment.org/specialprojects/counteringinfluenceoperations '''Partnership for Countering Influence Operations''' ('''PCIO''') at carnegieendowment.org] ([https://carnegieendowment.org/about/?fa=contact contact form])<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''Carnegie Endowment for International Peace - Partnership for Countering Influence Operations''' ('''PCIO''') at carnegieendowment.org
 
 
 
* Contact form https://carnegieendowment.org/about/?fa=contact
 
 
 
Mail
 
* Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
 
* Partnership for Countering Influence Operations
 
* 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW
 
* Washington, DC 20036-2103
 
* USA
 
 
 
Phone
 
* 1-202-483-7600
 
 
 
Fax
 
* 1-202-483-1840
 
 
 
</ref> is a partnership by the [[w:Carnegie Endowment for International Peace]]
 
 
 
* [https://www.unglobalpulse.org/ '''UN Global Pulse''' at unglobalpulse.org] is [[w:United Nations]] Secretary-General’s initiative on big data and artificial intelligence for development, humanitarian action, and peace.
 
* [https://www.humane-ai.eu/ '''humane-ai.eu'''] by [https://www.k4all.org/ '''Knowledge 4 All Foundation Ltd.''' at k4all.org]<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
*'''Knowledge 4 All Foundation Ltd.''' - https://www.k4all.org/
 
* Betchworth House
 
* 57-65 Station Road
 
* Redhill, Surrey, RH1 1DL
 
* UK
 
 
 
</ref>
 
 
 
=== Other essential developments ===
 
* [https://www.montrealdeclaration-responsibleai.com/ '''The Montréal Declaration for a Responsible Development of Artificial Intelligence''' at montrealdeclaration-responsibleai.com]<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
* '''The Montréal Declaration for a Responsible Development of Artificial Intelligence''' at montrealdeclaration-responsibleai.com
 
 
 
Phone
 
* 1-514-343-6111, ext. 29669
 
 
 
Email
 
* declaration-iaresponsable@umontreal.ca
 
 
 
 
 
</ref> and the same site in French [https://www.declarationmontreal-iaresponsable.com/ '''La Déclaration de Montéal IA responsable''' at declarationmontreal-iaresponsable.com]<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/>
 
* [https://uniglobalunion.org/ '''UNI Global Union''' at uniglobalunion.org] is based in [[w:Nyon]], [[w:Switzerland]] and deals mainly with labor issues to do with AI and robotics.<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/> [https://www.linkedin.com/company/uni-global-union/ UNI Global Union on LinkedIn.com]
 
* [https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/IST-2000-26048 '''European Robotics Research Network''' at cordis.europa.eu] funded by the [[w:European Commission]].<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/>
 
* [https://www.eu-robotics.net/ '''European Robotics Platform''' at eu-robotics.net] is funded by the [[w:European Commission]]. See [[w:European Robotics Platform]] and [[w:List of European Union robotics projects#EUROP]] for more info.<ref group="1st seen in" name="EU-Parl-Ethical-AI-Study-2020"/>
 
 
 
=== Events against synthetic human-like fakes ===
 
 
 
* ''' UPCOMING 2022''' | '''[[w:European Conference on Computer Vision]]''' in Tel Aviv, Israel
 
 
 
* ''' UPCOMING 2021 ''' | '''[[w:Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems]]''' [https://neurips.cc/ '''NeurIPS 2021''' at neurips.cc], virtual in December 2021.
 
 
 
* '''2020 - ONGOING''' | '''[[w:National Institute of Standards and Technology]]''' ('''NIST''') ([https://www.nist.gov/ nist.gov]) ([https://www.nist.gov/about-nist/contact-us contacting NIST]) | Open Media Forensics Challenge presented in [https://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/mig/open-media-forensics-challenge '''Open Media Forensics Challenge''' at nist.gov] and [https://mfc.nist.gov/ '''Open Media Forensics Challenge''' ('''OpenMFC''') at mfc.nist.gov]<ref group="contact">
 
 
 
Email:
 
* mfc_poc@nist.gov
 
 
 
</ref> - ''Open Media Forensics Challenge Evaluation (OpenMFC) is an open evaluation series organized by the NIST to assess and measure the capability of media forensic algorithms and systems.''<ref>https://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/mig/open-media-forensics-challenge</ref>
 
 
 
* '''2021''' | '''[[w:Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition]] (CVPR)''' 2021
 
** [https://public.tableau.com/app/profile/joshpreston/viz/CVPR2021/Dashboard1 '''CVPR 2021 research areas visualization by Joshua Preston''' at public.tableau.com]
 
** [https://sites.google.com/view/mediaforensics2021 2021  ''''Workshop on Media Forensics'''' in CVPR 2021 at sites.google.com], a '''June 2021''' workshop at the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.
 
 
 
* '''2020''' | [http://cvpr2020.thecvf.com/  '''CVPR''' 2020] |  [https://sites.google.com/view/wmediaforensics2020/home 2020 Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition:  ''''Workshop on Media Forensics'''' at sites.google.com], a '''June 2020''' workshop at the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.
 
 
 
* '''2020''' | The winners of the [https://venturebeat.com/2020/06/12/facebook-detection-challenge-winners-spot-deepfakes-with-82-accuracy/ Deepfake Detection Challenge reach 82% accuracy in detecting synthetic human-like fakes]<ref name="VentureBeat2020">https://venturebeat.com/2020/06/12/facebook-detection-challenge-winners-spot-deepfakes-with-82-accuracy/</ref>
 
 
 
* '''2019''' | At the annual Finnish [[w:Ministry of Defence (Finland)|w:Ministry of Defence]]'s  '''Scientific Advisory Board for Defence''' ('''MATINE''') public research seminar, a research group presented their work [https://www.defmin.fi/files/4755/1315MATINE_seminaari_21.11.pdf ''''''Synteettisen median tunnistus''''''' at defmin.fi] (Recognizing synthetic media). They developed on earlier work on how to automatically detect synthetic human-like fakes and their work was funded with a grant from MATINE.
 
 
 
* '''2019''' | '''[[w:NeurIPS]] 2019''' | [[w:Facebook, Inc.]] [https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/artificial-intelligence/machine-learning/facebook-ai-launches-its-deepfake-detection-challenge '''"Facebook AI Launches Its Deepfake Detection Challenge"''' at spectrum.ieee.org] [[w:IEEE Spectrum]]. More reporting at [https://venturebeat.com/2019/12/11/facebook-microsoft-and-others-launch-deepfake-detection-challenge/ '''''"Facebook, Microsoft, and others launch Deepfake Detection Challenge"''''' at venturebeat.com]
 
 
 
* '''2019''' | '''[https://cvpr2019.thecvf.com/ CVPR 2019]''' | [https://sites.google.com/view/mediaforensics2019/home '''2019''' CVPR: ''''Workshop on Media Forensics'''']
 
 
 
* '''2017'''-'''2020''' | '''NIST'''  | [https://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/mig/media-forensics-challenge NIST: 'Media Forensics Challenge'''' ('''MFC''') at nist.gov], an iterative research challenge by the [[w:National Institute of Standards and Technology]] [https://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/mig/media-forensics-challenge-2019-0 the evaluation criteria for the 2019 iteration are being formed]. Succeeded by the '''Open Media Forensics Challenge'''.
 
 
 
* '''2018''' | '''[[w:European Conference on Computer Vision|w:European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV)]]''' [https://sites.google.com/view/wocm2018/home ECCV 2018: ''''Workshop on Objectionable Content and Misinformation'''' at sites.google.com], a workshop at the '''2018''' [[w:European Conference on Computer Vision]] in [[w:Munich]] had focus on objectionable content detection e.g. [[w:nudity]], [[w:pornography]], [[w:violence]], [[w:hate]], [[w:Child sexual abuse|w:children exploitation]] and [[w:terrorism]] among others and to address misinformation problems when people are fed [[w:disinformation]] and they punt it on as misinformation. Announced topics included [[w:Outline of forensic science|w:image/video forensics]], [[w:detection]]/[[w:analysis]]/[[w:understanding]] of [[w:Counterfeit|w:fake]] images/videos, [[w:misinformation]] detection/understanding: mono-modal and [[w:Multimodality|w:multi-modal]], adversarial technologies and detection/understanding of objectionable content
 
 
 
* '''2018''' | '''NIST''' [https://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/mig/media-forensics-challenge-2018 NIST ''''Media Forensics Challenge 2018'''' at nist.gov] was the second annual evaluation to support research and help advance the state of the art for image and video forensics technologies – technologies that determine the region and type of manipulations in imagery (image/video data) and the phylogenic process that modified the imagery.  
 
 
 
* '''2017''' | '''NIST'''  [https://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/mig/nimble-challenge-2017-evaluation NIST ''''Nimble Challenge 2017'''' at nist.gov]
 
 
 
* '''2016''' | '''Nimble Challenge 2016''' - NIST released the Nimble Challenge’16 (NC2016) dataset as the MFC program kickoff dataset, (where NC is the former name of MFC). <ref>https://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/mig/open-media-forensics-challenge</ref>
 
 
 
=== Studies against synthetic human-like fakes ===
 
 
 
* [https://www.cbinsights.com/research/future-of-information-warfare/ ''''Disinformation That Kills: The Expanding Battlefield Of Digital Warfare'''' at cbinsights.com], a '''2020'''-10-21 research brief on disinformation warfare by [[w:CB Insights]], a private company that provides [[w:market intelligence]] and [[w:business analytics]] services
 
 
 
* [https://arxiv.org/abs/2001.06564 ''''Media Forensics and DeepFakes: an overview'''' at arXiv.org] [https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.06564.pdf (as .pdf at arXiv.org)], an overview on the subject of digital look-alikes and media forensics published in August '''2020''' in [https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isnumber=9177372 Volume 14 Issue 5 of IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing]. [https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9115874 ''''Media Forensics and DeepFakes: An Overview'''' at ieeexplore.ieee.org] (paywalled, free abstract)
 
 
 
* [https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1333&context=dltr ''''DEEPFAKES: False pornography is here and the law cannot protect you'''' at scholarship.law.duke.edu] by Douglas Harris, published in [https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/dltr/vol17/iss1/ Duke Law & Technology Review - Volume 17 on '''2019'''-01-05] by [[w:Duke University]] [[w:Duke University School of Law]]
 
 
 
''' Search for more '''
 
* [[w:Law review]]
 
** [[w:List of law reviews in the United States]]
 
 
 
=== Reporting against synthetic human-like fakes ===
 
* [https://news.berkeley.edu/2019/06/18/researchers-use-facial-quirks-to-unmask-deepfakes/ ''''''Researchers use facial quirks to unmask ‘deepfakes’'''''' at news.berkeley.edu] 2019-06-18 reporting by Kara Manke published in '' Politics & society, Research, Technology & engineering''-section in Berkley News of [[w:University of California, Berkeley|w:UC Berkeley]].
 
 
 
=== Companies against synthetic human-like fakes ===
 
See [[resources]] for more.
 
 
 
* '''[https://cyabra.com/ Cyabra.com]''' is an AI-based system that helps organizations be on the guard against disinformation attacks<ref group="1st seen in" name="ReutersDisinfomation2020">https://www.reuters.com/article/us-cyber-deepfake-activist/deepfake-used-to-attack-activist-couple-shows-new-disinformation-frontier-idUSKCN24G15E</ref>. [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-cyber-deepfake-activist/deepfake-used-to-attack-activist-couple-shows-new-disinformation-frontier-idUSKCN24G15E Reuters.com reporting] from July 2020.
 
 
 
<section end=APW_AI-transclusion />
 
 
 
=== SSF! wiki proposed countermeasure to weaponized synthetic pornography: Outlaw unauthorized synthetic pornography (transcluded) ===
 
Transcluded from [[Current and possible laws and their application#Law proposal to ban visual synthetic filth|Juho's proposal for banning unauthorized synthetic pornography]]
 
 
 
{{#section-h:Current and possible laws and their application|Law proposal to ban visual synthetic filth}}
 
 
 
=== SSF! wiki proposed countermeasure to weaponized synthetic porn pornography: Adequate Porn Watcher AI (concept) (transcluded) ===
 
Transcluded main contents from [[Adequate Porn Watcher AI (concept)]]
 
 
 
{{#lstx:Adequate Porn Watcher AI (concept)|See_also}}
 
 
 
=== SSF! wiki proposed countermeasure to digital sound-alikes: Outlawing digital sound-alikes (transcluded) ===
 
Transcluded from [[Current and possible laws and their application#Law proposal to ban unauthorized modeling of human voice|Juho's proposal on banning digital sound-alikes]]
 
 
 
{{#section-h:Current and possible laws and their application|Law proposal to ban unauthorized modeling of human voice}}
 
 
 
== Timeline  of synthetic human-like fakes ==
 
See the #SSFWIKI '''[[Mediatheque]]''' for viewing media that is or is probably to do with synthetic human-like fakes.
 
 
 
=== 2020's synthetic human-like fakes ===
 
  
 
* '''2021''' | Entertainment | The Swedish pop band [[w:ABBA]] published an album in September and will be performing shows where the music is live and real, but the visuals will be [[#Age analysis and rejuvenating and aging syntheses|rejuvenated]] [[#Digital look-alikes|digital look-alikes]] of the band members displayed to the fans with [[w:holography]] technology. ABBA used [[w:Industrial Light & Magic]] as the purveyor of technology. [[w:Industrial Light & Magic]] was acquired by [[w:The Walt Disney Company]] in 2012 as part of their acquisition [[w:Lucasfilm]].
 
* '''2021''' | Entertainment | The Swedish pop band [[w:ABBA]] published an album in September and will be performing shows where the music is live and real, but the visuals will be [[#Age analysis and rejuvenating and aging syntheses|rejuvenated]] [[#Digital look-alikes|digital look-alikes]] of the band members displayed to the fans with [[w:holography]] technology. ABBA used [[w:Industrial Light & Magic]] as the purveyor of technology. [[w:Industrial Light & Magic]] was acquired by [[w:The Walt Disney Company]] in 2012 as part of their acquisition [[w:Lucasfilm]].
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* '''2021''' | Science | [https://arxiv.org/pdf/2102.05630.pdf '''''Voice Cloning: a Multi-Speaker Text-to-Speech Synthesis Approach based on Transfer Learning''''' .pdf at arxiv.org], a paper submitted in Feb 2021 by researchers from the [[w:University of Turin]].<ref group="1st seen in" name="ConnectedPapers suggestion on Google Transfer learning 2018" />
 
* '''2021''' | Science | [https://arxiv.org/pdf/2102.05630.pdf '''''Voice Cloning: a Multi-Speaker Text-to-Speech Synthesis Approach based on Transfer Learning''''' .pdf at arxiv.org], a paper submitted in Feb 2021 by researchers from the [[w:University of Turin]].<ref group="1st seen in" name="ConnectedPapers suggestion on Google Transfer learning 2018" />
  
* '''<font color="green">2020</font>''' | '''<font color="green">counter-measure</font>''' | On 2020-11-18 the [[w:Partnership on AI]] introduced the [https://incidentdatabase.ai/ ''''''AI Incident Database'''''' at incidentdatabase.ai].<ref name="PartnershipOnAI2020">https://www.partnershiponai.org/aiincidentdatabase/</ref>
+
* '''2021''' | '''<font color="red">crime / fraud</font>''' | {{#lst:Synthetic human-like fakes|2021 digital sound-alike enabled fraud}}
 +
* '''<font color="green">2020</font>''' | '''<font color="green">counter-measure</font>''' | The [https://incidentdatabase.ai/ ''''''AI Incident Database'''''' at incidentdatabase.ai] was introduced on 2020-11-18 by the [[w:Partnership on AI]].<ref name="PartnershipOnAI2020">https://www.partnershiponai.org/aiincidentdatabase/</ref>
  
 
* '''2020''' | reporting | [https://www.wired.co.uk/article/deepfake-porn-websites-videos-law "''Deepfake porn is now mainstream. And major sites are cashing in''" at wired.co.uk] by Matt Burgess. Published August 2020.
 
* '''2020''' | reporting | [https://www.wired.co.uk/article/deepfake-porn-websites-videos-law "''Deepfake porn is now mainstream. And major sites are cashing in''" at wired.co.uk] by Matt Burgess. Published August 2020.
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** [https://www.cnet.com/news/mit-releases-deepfake-video-of-nixon-announcing-nasa-apollo-11-disaster/ Cnet.com July 2020 reporting ''MIT releases deepfake video of 'Nixon' announcing NASA Apollo 11 disaster'']
 
** [https://www.cnet.com/news/mit-releases-deepfake-video-of-nixon-announcing-nasa-apollo-11-disaster/ Cnet.com July 2020 reporting ''MIT releases deepfake video of 'Nixon' announcing NASA Apollo 11 disaster'']
  
* '''2020''' | '''<font color="red">crime / fraud</font>''' | The 2nd publicly known fraud done with a digital sound-alike took place on Wednesday 2020-01-15. A bank in Hong Kong was manipulated to wire money to numerous bank accounts by using a voice stolen from one of the their client company's directors. They managed to defraud $35 million of the U.A.E. based company's money.<ref name="Forbes 2020 voice theft reporting">https://www.forbes.com/sites/thomasbrewster/2021/10/14/huge-bank-fraud-uses-deep-fake-voice-tech-to-steal-millions/</ref>
+
* '''2020''' | US state law | {{#lst:Laws against synthetic filth|California2020}}
** [https://www.forbes.com/sites/thomasbrewster/2021/10/14/huge-bank-fraud-uses-deep-fake-voice-tech-to-steal-millions/ '''''Fraudsters Cloned Company Director’s Voice In $35 Million Bank Heist, Police Find''''' at forbes.com] 2021-10-14 original reporting
+
* '''2020''' | Chinese legislation |  {{#lst:Laws against synthetic filth|China2020}}
** [https://www.unite.ai/deepfaked-voice-enabled-35-million-bank-heist-in-2020/ '''''Deepfaked Voice Enabled $35 Million Bank Heist in 2020''''' at unite.ai]<ref group="1st seen in">https://www.reddit.com/r/VocalSynthesis/</ref> reporting updated on 2021-10-15
 
* '''2020''' | US state law | {{#lst:Current and possible laws and their application|California2020}}
 
* '''2020''' | Chinese legislation |  {{#lst:Current and possible laws and their application|China2020}}
 
  
=== 2010's synthetic human-like fakes ===
+
== 2010's synthetic human-like fakes ==
 
* '''2019''' | science and demonstration | At the December 2019 NeurIPS conference, a novel method for making animated fakes of anything with AI [https://aliaksandrsiarohin.github.io/first-order-model-website/ '''''First Order Motion Model for Image Animation''''' (website at aliaksandrsiarohin.github.io)], [https://proceedings.neurips.cc/paper/2019/file/31c0b36aef265d9221af80872ceb62f9-Paper.pdf (paper)] [https://github.com/AliaksandrSiarohin/first-order-model (github)] was presented.<ref group="1st seen in">https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/08/28/1007746/ai-deepfakes-memes/</ref>
 
* '''2019''' | science and demonstration | At the December 2019 NeurIPS conference, a novel method for making animated fakes of anything with AI [https://aliaksandrsiarohin.github.io/first-order-model-website/ '''''First Order Motion Model for Image Animation''''' (website at aliaksandrsiarohin.github.io)], [https://proceedings.neurips.cc/paper/2019/file/31c0b36aef265d9221af80872ceb62f9-Paper.pdf (paper)] [https://github.com/AliaksandrSiarohin/first-order-model (github)] was presented.<ref group="1st seen in">https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/08/28/1007746/ai-deepfakes-memes/</ref>
 
** Reporting [https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/08/28/1007746/ai-deepfakes-memes/ '''''Memers are making deepfakes, and things are getting weird''''' at technologyreview.com], 2020-08-28 by Karen Hao.
 
** Reporting [https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/08/28/1007746/ai-deepfakes-memes/ '''''Memers are making deepfakes, and things are getting weird''''' at technologyreview.com], 2020-08-28 by Karen Hao.
 
* '''2019''' | demonstration | In September 2019 [[w:Yle]], the Finnish [[w:public broadcasting company]], aired a result of experimental [[w:journalism]], [https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-10955498 '''a deepfake of the President in office'''] [[w:Sauli Niinistö]] in its main news broadcast for the purpose of highlighting the advancing disinformation technology and problems that arise from it.
 
* '''2019''' | demonstration | In September 2019 [[w:Yle]], the Finnish [[w:public broadcasting company]], aired a result of experimental [[w:journalism]], [https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-10955498 '''a deepfake of the President in office'''] [[w:Sauli Niinistö]] in its main news broadcast for the purpose of highlighting the advancing disinformation technology and problems that arise from it.
* '''2019''' | US state law | {{#lst:Current and possible laws and their application|Texas2019}}
+
* '''2019''' | US state law | {{#lst:Laws against synthetic filth|Texas2019}}
* '''2019''' | US state law | {{#lst:Current and possible laws and their application|Virginia2019}}
+
* '''2019''' | US state law | {{#lst:Laws against synthetic filth|Virginia2019}}
* 2019 | Science | [https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.10460.pdf '''''Sample Efficient Adaptive Text-to-Speech''''' .pdf at arxiv.org], a 2019 paper from Google researchers, published as a conference paper at [[w:International Conference on Learning Representations]] (ICLR)<ref group="1st seen in" name="ConnectedPapers suggestion on Google Transfer learning 2018"> https://www.connectedpapers.com/main/8fc09dfcff78ac9057ff0834a83d23eb38ca198a/Transfer-Learning-from-Speaker-Verification-to-Multispeaker-TextToSpeech-Synthesis/graph</ref>
+
* '''2019''' | Science | [https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.10460.pdf '''''Sample Efficient Adaptive Text-to-Speech''''' .pdf at arxiv.org], a 2019 paper from Google researchers, published as a conference paper at [[w:International Conference on Learning Representations]] (ICLR)<ref group="1st seen in" name="ConnectedPapers suggestion on Google Transfer learning 2018"> https://www.connectedpapers.com/main/8fc09dfcff78ac9057ff0834a83d23eb38ca198a/Transfer-Learning-from-Speaker-Verification-to-Multispeaker-TextToSpeech-Synthesis/graph</ref>
  
 
* '''2019''' | science and demonstration | [https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.09773.pdf ''''Speech2Face: Learning the Face Behind a Voice'''' at arXiv.org] a system for generating likely facial features based on the voice of a person, presented by the [[w:MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory]] at the 2019 [[w:Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition|w:CVPR]]. [https://github.com/saiteja-talluri/Speech2Face Speech2Face at github.com] This may develop to something that really causes problems. [https://neurohive.io/en/news/speech2face-neural-network-predicts-the-face-behind-a-voice/ "Speech2Face: Neural Network Predicts the Face Behind a Voice" reporing at neurohive.io], [https://belitsoft.com/speech-recognition-software-development/speech2face "Speech2Face Sees Voices and Hears Faces: Dreams Come True with AI" reporting at belitsoft.com]
 
* '''2019''' | science and demonstration | [https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.09773.pdf ''''Speech2Face: Learning the Face Behind a Voice'''' at arXiv.org] a system for generating likely facial features based on the voice of a person, presented by the [[w:MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory]] at the 2019 [[w:Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition|w:CVPR]]. [https://github.com/saiteja-talluri/Speech2Face Speech2Face at github.com] This may develop to something that really causes problems. [https://neurohive.io/en/news/speech2face-neural-network-predicts-the-face-behind-a-voice/ "Speech2Face: Neural Network Predicts the Face Behind a Voice" reporing at neurohive.io], [https://belitsoft.com/speech-recognition-software-development/speech2face "Speech2Face Sees Voices and Hears Faces: Dreams Come True with AI" reporting at belitsoft.com]
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* '''<font color="red">2018</font>''' | <font color="red">science</font> and <font color="red">demonstration</font> | The work [http://papers.nips.cc/paper/7700-transfer-learning-from-speaker-verification-to-multispeaker-text-to-speech-synthesis ''''Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis''''] ([https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.04558 at arXiv.org]) was presented at the 2018 [[w:Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems]] ('''NeurIPS'''). The pre-trained model is able to steal voices from a sample of only '''5 seconds''' with almost convincing results.
 
* '''<font color="red">2018</font>''' | <font color="red">science</font> and <font color="red">demonstration</font> | The work [http://papers.nips.cc/paper/7700-transfer-learning-from-speaker-verification-to-multispeaker-text-to-speech-synthesis ''''Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis''''] ([https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.04558 at arXiv.org]) was presented at the 2018 [[w:Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems]] ('''NeurIPS'''). The pre-trained model is able to steal voices from a sample of only '''5 seconds''' with almost convincing results.
 +
 +
* '''2018''' | science | [https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.10196 '''Progressive Growing of GANs for Improved Quality, Stability, and Variation''' at arxiv.org] ([https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.10196.pdf .pdf]), colloquially known as ProGANs were presented by Nvidia researchers at the [https://iclr.cc/Conferences/2018 2018 ICLR]. [[w:International Conference on Learning Representations]]
  
 
* '''2018''' | demonstration | At the 2018 [[w:World Internet Conference]] in [[w:Wuzhen]] the [[w:Xinhua News Agency]] presented two digital look-alikes made to the resemblance of its real news anchors Qiu Hao ([[w:Chinese language]])<ref name="TheGuardian2018">
 
* '''2018''' | demonstration | At the 2018 [[w:World Internet Conference]] in [[w:Wuzhen]] the [[w:Xinhua News Agency]] presented two digital look-alikes made to the resemblance of its real news anchors Qiu Hao ([[w:Chinese language]])<ref name="TheGuardian2018">
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* '''2013''' | demonstration | A '''[https://ict.usc.edu/pubs/Scanning%20and%20Printing%20a%203D%20Portrait%20of%20President%20Barack%20Obama.pdf 'Scanning and Printing a 3D Portrait of President Barack Obama' at ict.usc.edu]'''.  A 7D model and a 3D bust was made of President Obama with his consent. Relevancy: <font color="green">'''Relevancy: certain'''</font>
 
* '''2013''' | demonstration | A '''[https://ict.usc.edu/pubs/Scanning%20and%20Printing%20a%203D%20Portrait%20of%20President%20Barack%20Obama.pdf 'Scanning and Printing a 3D Portrait of President Barack Obama' at ict.usc.edu]'''.  A 7D model and a 3D bust was made of President Obama with his consent. Relevancy: <font color="green">'''Relevancy: certain'''</font>
  
=== 2000's synthetic human-like fakes ===
+
== 2000's synthetic human-like fakes ==
  
 
* '''2010''' | movie | [[w:Walt Disney Pictures]] released a sci-fi sequel entitled ''[[w:Tron: Legacy]]'' with a digitally rejuvenated digital look-alike made of the actor [[w:Jeff Bridges]] playing the [[w:antagonist]] [[w:List of Tron characters#CLU|w:CLU]].
 
* '''2010''' | movie | [[w:Walt Disney Pictures]] released a sci-fi sequel entitled ''[[w:Tron: Legacy]]'' with a digitally rejuvenated digital look-alike made of the actor [[w:Jeff Bridges]] playing the [[w:antagonist]] [[w:List of Tron characters#CLU|w:CLU]].
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* '''2002''' | music video | '''[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3qIXIHAmcKU 'Bullet' by Covenant on Youtube]''' by [[w:Covenant (band)]] from their album [[w:Northern Light (Covenant album)]]. Relevancy: Contains the best upper-torso digital look-alike of Eskil Simonsson (vocalist) that their organization could procure at the time. Here you can observe the '''classic "''skin looks like cardboard''"-bug''' (assuming this was not intended) that '''thwarted efforts to''' make digital look-alikes that '''pass human testing''' before the '''reflectance capture and dissection in 1999''' by [[w:Paul Debevec]] et al. at the [[w:University of Southern California]] and subsequent development of the '''"Analytical [[w:bidirectional reflectance distribution function|w:BRDF]]"''' (quote-unquote) by ESC Entertainment, a company set up for the '''sole purpose''' of '''making the cinematography''' for the 2003 films Matrix Reloaded and Matrix Revolutions '''possible''', lead by George Borshukov.
 
* '''2002''' | music video | '''[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3qIXIHAmcKU 'Bullet' by Covenant on Youtube]''' by [[w:Covenant (band)]] from their album [[w:Northern Light (Covenant album)]]. Relevancy: Contains the best upper-torso digital look-alike of Eskil Simonsson (vocalist) that their organization could procure at the time. Here you can observe the '''classic "''skin looks like cardboard''"-bug''' (assuming this was not intended) that '''thwarted efforts to''' make digital look-alikes that '''pass human testing''' before the '''reflectance capture and dissection in 1999''' by [[w:Paul Debevec]] et al. at the [[w:University of Southern California]] and subsequent development of the '''"Analytical [[w:bidirectional reflectance distribution function|w:BRDF]]"''' (quote-unquote) by ESC Entertainment, a company set up for the '''sole purpose''' of '''making the cinematography''' for the 2003 films Matrix Reloaded and Matrix Revolutions '''possible''', lead by George Borshukov.
  
=== 1990's synthetic human-like fakes ===
+
== 1990's synthetic human-like fakes ==
  
 
[[File:Institute for Creative Technologies (logo).jpg|thumb|left|156px|Logo of the '''[[w:Institute for Creative Technologies]]''' founded in 1999 in the [[w:University of Southern California]] by the [[w:United States Army]]]]
 
[[File:Institute for Creative Technologies (logo).jpg|thumb|left|156px|Logo of the '''[[w:Institute for Creative Technologies]]''' founded in 1999 in the [[w:University of Southern California]] by the [[w:United States Army]]]]
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* '''1994''' | movie | [[w:The Crow (1994 film)]] was the first film production to make use of [[w:digital compositing]] of a computer simulated representation of a face onto scenes filmed using a [[w:body double]]. Necessity was the muse as the actor [[w:Brandon Lee]] portraying the protagonist was tragically killed accidentally on-stage.
 
* '''1994''' | movie | [[w:The Crow (1994 film)]] was the first film production to make use of [[w:digital compositing]] of a computer simulated representation of a face onto scenes filmed using a [[w:body double]]. Necessity was the muse as the actor [[w:Brandon Lee]] portraying the protagonist was tragically killed accidentally on-stage.
  
=== 1970's synthetic human-like fakes ===
+
== 1970's synthetic human-like fakes ==
  
 
{{#ev:vimeo|16292363|480px|right|''[[w:A Computer Animated Hand|w:A Computer Animated Hand]]'' is a 1972 short film by [[w:Edwin Catmull]] and [[w:Fred Parke]]. This was the first time that [[w:computer-generated imagery]] was used in film to animate likenesses of moving human appearance.}}
 
{{#ev:vimeo|16292363|480px|right|''[[w:A Computer Animated Hand|w:A Computer Animated Hand]]'' is a 1972 short film by [[w:Edwin Catmull]] and [[w:Fred Parke]]. This was the first time that [[w:computer-generated imagery]] was used in film to animate likenesses of moving human appearance.}}
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* '''1971''' | science | '''[https://interstices.info/images-de-synthese-palme-de-la-longevite-pour-lombrage-de-gouraud/ 'Images de synthèse : palme de la longévité pour l’ombrage de Gouraud' (still photos)]'''. [[w:Henri Gouraud (computer scientist)]] made the first [[w:Computer graphics]] [[w:geometry]] [[w:digitization]] and representation of a human face. Modeling was his wife Sylvie Gouraud. The 3D model was a simple [[w:wire-frame model]] and he applied [[w:Gouraud shading]] to produce the '''first known representation''' of '''human-likeness''' on computer. <ref>{{cite web|title=Images de synthèse : palme de la longévité pour l'ombrage de Gouraud|url=http://interstices.info/jcms/c_25256/images-de-synthese-palme-de-la-longevite-pour-lombrage-de-gouraud}}</ref>
 
* '''1971''' | science | '''[https://interstices.info/images-de-synthese-palme-de-la-longevite-pour-lombrage-de-gouraud/ 'Images de synthèse : palme de la longévité pour l’ombrage de Gouraud' (still photos)]'''. [[w:Henri Gouraud (computer scientist)]] made the first [[w:Computer graphics]] [[w:geometry]] [[w:digitization]] and representation of a human face. Modeling was his wife Sylvie Gouraud. The 3D model was a simple [[w:wire-frame model]] and he applied [[w:Gouraud shading]] to produce the '''first known representation''' of '''human-likeness''' on computer. <ref>{{cite web|title=Images de synthèse : palme de la longévité pour l'ombrage de Gouraud|url=http://interstices.info/jcms/c_25256/images-de-synthese-palme-de-la-longevite-pour-lombrage-de-gouraud}}</ref>
  
=== 1960's synthetic human-like fakes ===
+
== 1960's synthetic human-like fakes ==
  
 
* '''1961''' | demonstration | The first singing by a computer was performed by an [[w:IBM 704]] and the song was [[w:Daisy Bell]], written in 1892 by British songwriter [[w:Harry Dacre]]. Go to [[Mediatheque#1961]] to view.
 
* '''1961''' | demonstration | The first singing by a computer was performed by an [[w:IBM 704]] and the song was [[w:Daisy Bell]], written in 1892 by British songwriter [[w:Harry Dacre]]. Go to [[Mediatheque#1961]] to view.
  
=== 1930's synthetic human-like fakes ===
+
== 1930's synthetic human-like fakes ==
 
[[File:Homer Dudley (October 1940). "The Carrier Nature of Speech". Bell System Technical Journal, XIX(4);495-515. -- Fig.5 The voder being demonstrated at the New York World's Fair.jpg|thumb|left|300px|'''[[w:Voder]]''' demonstration pavillion at the [[w:1939 New York World's Fair]]]]  
 
[[File:Homer Dudley (October 1940). "The Carrier Nature of Speech". Bell System Technical Journal, XIX(4);495-515. -- Fig.5 The voder being demonstrated at the New York World's Fair.jpg|thumb|left|300px|'''[[w:Voder]]''' demonstration pavillion at the [[w:1939 New York World's Fair]]]]  
  
 
* '''1939''' | demonstration | '''[[w:Voder]]''' (''Voice Operating Demonstrator'') from the [[w:Bell Labs|w:Bell Telephone Laboratory]] was the first time that [[w:speech synthesis]] was done electronically by breaking it down into its acoustic components. It was invented by [[w:Homer Dudley]] in 1937–1938 and developed on his earlier work on the [[w:vocoder]]. (Wikipedia)
 
* '''1939''' | demonstration | '''[[w:Voder]]''' (''Voice Operating Demonstrator'') from the [[w:Bell Labs|w:Bell Telephone Laboratory]] was the first time that [[w:speech synthesis]] was done electronically by breaking it down into its acoustic components. It was invented by [[w:Homer Dudley]] in 1937–1938 and developed on his earlier work on the [[w:vocoder]]. (Wikipedia)
  
=== 1770's synthetic human-like fakes ===
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== 1770's synthetic human-like fakes ==
  
 
[[File:Kempelen Speakingmachine.JPG|right|thumb|300px|A replica of [[w:Wolfgang von Kempelen]]'s [[w:Wolfgang von Kempelen's Speaking Machine]], built 2007–09 at the Department of [[w:Phonetics]], [[w:Saarland University]], [[w:Saarbrücken]], Germany. This machine added models of the tongue and lips, enabling it to produce [[w:consonant]]s as well as [[w:vowel]]s]]
 
[[File:Kempelen Speakingmachine.JPG|right|thumb|300px|A replica of [[w:Wolfgang von Kempelen]]'s [[w:Wolfgang von Kempelen's Speaking Machine]], built 2007–09 at the Department of [[w:Phonetics]], [[w:Saarland University]], [[w:Saarbrücken]], Germany. This machine added models of the tongue and lips, enabling it to produce [[w:consonant]]s as well as [[w:vowel]]s]]
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Latest revision as of 23:02, 5 January 2022

Definitions

When the camera does not exist, but the subject being imaged with a simulation of a (movie) camera deceives the watcher to believe it is some living or dead person it is a digital look-alike.

When it cannot be determined by human testing or media forensics whether some fake voice is a synthetic fake of some person's voice, or is it an actual recording made of that person's actual real voice, it is a pre-recorded digital sound-alike.

Read more about synthetic human-like fakes, see who are against synthetic human-like fakes and what they are doing, what kinds of laws against synthetic filth have been formulated, examine the SSFWIKI timeline of synthetic human-like fakes or view the Mediatheque.


This is not a picture of Obama, because it is not Obama in the video that this screenshot is from, but a synthetic human-like fake, more precisely a pre-recorded digital look-alike.

Click on the picture or Obama's appearance thieved - a public service announcement digital look-alike by Monkeypaw Productions and Buzzfeed to view an April 2018 public service announcement moving digital look-alike made to appear Obama-like. The video is accompanied with imitator sound-alike, and was made by w:Monkeypaw Productions (.com) in conjunction with w:BuzzFeed (.com). You can also View the same video at YouTube.com.[1]
Image 2 (low resolution rip) shows a 1999 technique for sculpting a morphable model, till it matches the target's appearance.
(1) Sculpting a morphable model to one single picture
(2) Produces 3D approximation
(4) Texture capture
(3) The 3D model is rendered back to the image with weight gain
(5) With weight loss
(6) Looking annoyed
(7) Forced to smile Image 2 by Blanz and Vettel – Copyright ACM 1999 – http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=311535.311556 – Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page.

Digital look-alikes[edit | edit source]

It is recommended that you watch In Event of Moon Disaster - FULL FILM (2020) at the moondisaster.org project website (where it has interactive portions) by the Center for Advanced Virtuality of the w:MIT


Introduction to digital look-alikes[edit | edit source]

Image 1: Separating specular and diffuse reflected light

(a) Normal image in dot lighting

(b) Image of the diffuse reflection which is caught by placing a vertical polarizer in front of the light source and a horizontal in the front the camera

(c) Image of the highlight specular reflection which is caught by placing both polarizers vertically

(d) Subtraction of c from b, which yields the specular component

Images are scaled to seem to be the same luminosity.

Original image by Debevec et al. – Copyright ACM 2000 – https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=311779.344855 – Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page.
Subtraction of the diffuse reflection from the specular reflection yields the specular component of the model's reflectance.

Original picture by w:Paul Debevec et al. - Copyright ACM 2000 https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=311779.344855

In the cinemas we have seen digital look-alikes for over 15 years. These digital look-alikes have "clothing" (a simulation of clothing is not clothing) or "superhero costumes" and "superbaddie costumes", and they don't need to care about the laws of physics, let alone laws of physiology. It is generally accepted that digital look-alikes made their public debut in the sequels of The Matrix i.e. w:The Matrix Reloaded and w:The Matrix Revolutions released in 2003. It can be considered almost certain, that it was not possible to make these before the year 1999, as the final piece of the puzzle to make a (still) digital look-alike that passes human testing, the reflectance capture over the human face, was made for the first time in 1999 at the w:University of Southern California and was presented to the crème de la crème of the computer graphics field in their annual gathering SIGGRAPH 2000.[2]


“Do you think that was w:Hugo Weaving's left cheekbone that w:Keanu Reeves punched in with his right fist?”

~ Trad on The Matrix Revolutions



The problems with digital look-alikes[edit | edit source]

Extremely unfortunately for the humankind, organized criminal leagues, that posses the weapons capability of making believable looking synthetic pornography, are producing on industrial production pipelines synthetic terror porn[footnote 1] by animating digital look-alikes and distributing it in the murky Internet in exchange for money stacks that are getting thinner and thinner as time goes by.

These industrially produced pornographic delusions are causing great humane suffering, especially in their direct victims, but they are also tearing our communities and societies apart, sowing blind rage, perceptions of deepening chaos, feelings of powerlessness and provoke violence. This hate illustration increases and strengthens hate thinking, hate speech, hate crimes and tears our fragile social constructions apart and with time perverts humankind's view of humankind into an almost unrecognizable shape, unless we interfere with resolve.

List of possible naked digital look-alike attacks[edit | edit source]

  • The classic "portrayal of as if in involuntary sex"-attack. (Digital look-alike "cries")
  • "Sexual preference alteration"-attack. (Digital look-alike "smiles")
  • "Cutting / beating"-attack (Constructs a deceptive history for genuine scars)
  • "Mutilation"-attack (Digital look-alike "dies")
  • "Unconscious and injected"-attack (Digital look-alike gets "disease")

Age analysis and rejuvenating and aging syntheses[edit | edit source]

Temporal limit of digital look-alikes[edit | edit source]

A picture of the 1895 w:Cinematograph

w:History of film technology has information about where the border is.

Digital look-alikes cannot be used to attack people who existed before the technological invention of film. For moving pictures the breakthrough is attributed to w:Auguste and Louis Lumière's w:Cinematograph premiered in Paris on 28 December 1895, though this was only the commercial and popular breakthrough, as even earlier moving pictures exist. (adapted from w:History of film)

The w:Kinetoscope is an even earlier motion picture exhibition device. A prototype for the Kinetoscope was shown to a convention of the National Federation of Women's Clubs on May 20, 1891.[3] The first public demonstration of the Kinetoscope was held at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893. (Wikipedia)[3]



Digital sound-alikes[edit | edit source]

A picture of a cut-away titled "Voice-terrorist could mimic a leader" from a 2012 w:Helsingin Sanomat warning that the sound-like-anyone machines are approaching. Thank you to homie Prof. David Martin Howard of the w:University of York, UK and the anonymous editor for the heads-up.

The first English speaking digital sound-alikes were first introduced in 2016 by Adobe and Deepmind, but neither of them were made publicly available.

Then in 2018 at the w:Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS) the work 'Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis' (at arXiv.org) was presented. The pre-trained model is able to steal voices from a sample of only 5 seconds with almost convincing results

The Iframe below is transcluded from 'Audio samples from "Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis"' at google.gituhub.io, the audio samples of a sound-like-anyone machine presented as at the 2018 w:NeurIPS conference by Google researchers.

Have a listen.

Observe how good the "VCTK p240" system is at deceiving to think that it is a person that is doing the talking.


Reporting on the sound-like-anyone-machines


The to the right video 'This AI Clones Your Voice After Listening for 5 Seconds' by '2 minute papers' at YouTube describes the voice thieving machine presented by Google Research in w:NeurIPS 2018.

Video video 'This AI Clones Your Voice After Listening for 5 Seconds' by '2 minute papers' at YouTube describes the voice thieving machine by Google Research in w:NeurIPS 2018.

Documented crimes with digital sound-alikes[edit | edit source]

In 2019 reports of crimes being committed with digital sound-alikes started surfacing. As of Jan 2022 no reports of other types of attack than fraud have been found.

2019 digital sound-alike enabled fraud[edit | edit source]

By 2019 digital sound-alike anyone technology found its way to the hands of criminals. In 2019 Symantec researchers knew of 3 cases where digital sound-alike technology had been used for w:crime.[4]

Of these crimes the most publicized was a fraud case in March 2019 where 220,000€ were defrauded with the use of a real-time digital sound-alike.[5] The company that was the victim of this fraud had bought some kind of cyberscam insurance from French insurer w:Euler Hermes and the case came to light when Mr. Rüdiger Kirsch of Euler Hermes informed w:The Wall Street Journal about it.[6]

Reporting on the 2019 digital sound-alike enabled fraud

2020 digital sound-alike fraud attempt[edit | edit source]

In June 2020 fraud was attempted with a poor quality pre-recorded digital sound-alike with delivery method was voicemail. (Listen to a redacted clip at soundcloud.com) The recipient in a tech company didn't believe the voicemail to be real and alerted the company and they realized that someone tried to scam them. The company called in Nisos to investigate the issue. Nisos analyzed the evidence and they were certain it was a fake, but had aspects of a cut-and-paste job to it. Nisos prepared a report titled "The Rise of Synthetic Audio Deepfakes" at nisos.com on the issue and shared it with Motherboard, part of w:Vice (magazine) prior to its release.[8]

2021 digital sound-alike enabled fraud[edit | edit source]

The 2nd publicly known fraud done with a digital sound-alike[1st seen in 1] took place on Friday 2021-01-15. A bank in Hong Kong was manipulated to wire money to numerous bank accounts by using a voice stolen from one of the their client company's directors. They managed to defraud $35 million of the U.A.E. based company's money.[9]. This case came into light when Forbes saw a document where the U.A.E. financial authorities were seeking administrative assistance from the US authorities towards the end of recovering a small portion of the defrauded money that had been sent to bank accounts in the USA.[9]

Reporting on the 2021 digital sound-alike enabled fraud


What should we do about digital sound-alikes?[edit | edit source]

Living people can defend[footnote 2] themselves against digital sound-alike by denying the things the digital sound-alike says if they are presented to the target, but dead people cannot. Digital sound-alikes offer criminals new disinformation attack vectors and wreak havoc on provability.

For these reasons the bannable raw materials i.e. covert voice models should be prohibited by law in order to protect humans from abuse by criminal parties.


Example of a hypothetical 4-victim digital sound-alike attack[edit | edit source]

A very simple example of a digital sound-alike attack is as follows:

Someone puts a digital sound-alike to call somebody's voicemail from an unknown number and to speak for example illegal threats. In this example there are at least two victims:

  1. Victim #1 - The person whose voice has been stolen into a covert model and a digital sound-alike made from it to frame them for crimes
  2. Victim #2 - The person to whom the illegal threat is presented in a recorded form by a digital sound-alike that deceptively sounds like victim #1
  3. Victim #3 - It could also be viewed that victim #3 is our law enforcement systems as they are put to chase after and interrogate the innocent victim #1
  4. Victim #4 - Our judiciary which prosecutes and possibly convicts the innocent victim #1.

Thus it is high time to act and to criminalize the covert modeling of human voice!

Examples of speech synthesis software not quite able to fool a human yet[edit | edit source]

Some other contenders to create digital sound-alikes are though, as of 2019, their speech synthesis in most use scenarios does not yet fool a human because the results contain tell tale signs that give it away as a speech synthesizer.

Temporal limit of digital sound-alikes[edit | edit source]

w:Thomas Edison and his early w:phonograph. Cropped from w:Library of Congress copy, ca. 1877, (probably 18 April 1878)

The temporal limit of whom, dead or living, the digital sound-alikes can attack is defined by the w:history of sound recording.

The article starts by mentioning that the invention of the w:phonograph by w:Thomas Edison in 1877 is considered the start of sound recording.

The phonautograph is the earliest known device for recording w:sound. Previously, tracings had been obtained of the sound-producing vibratory motions of w:tuning forks and other objects by physical contact with them, but not of actual sound waves as they propagated through air or other media. Invented by Frenchman W:Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, it was patented on March 25, 1857.[10]

Apparently, it did not occur to anyone before the 1870s that the recordings, called phonautograms, contained enough information about the sound that they could, in theory, be used to recreate it. Because the phonautogram tracing was an insubstantial two-dimensional line, direct physical playback was impossible in any case. Several phonautograms recorded before 1861 were successfully played as sound in 2008 by optically scanning them and using a computer to process the scans into digital audio files. (Wikipedia)

A w:spectrogram of a male voice saying 'nineteenth century'

Text syntheses[edit | edit source]

w:Chatbots have existed for a longer time, but only now armed with AI they are becoming more deceiving.

In w:natural language processing development in w:natural-language understanding leads to more cunning w:natural-language generation AI.

w:OpenAI's w:Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) is a left-to-right w:transformer (machine learning model)-based text generation model succeeded by w:GPT-2 and w:GPT-3

Reporting / announcements

External links

Handwriting syntheses[edit | edit source]

Handwriting syntheses could be used

  1. Defensively, to hide one's handwriting style from public view
  2. Offensively, to thieve somebody else's handwriting style

If the handwriting-like synthesis passes human and media forensics testing, it is a digital handwrite-alike.

Here we find a risk similar to that which realized when the w:speaker recognition systems turned out to be instrumental in the development of digital sound-alikes. After the knowledge needed to recognize a speaker was w:transferred into a generative task in 2018 by Google researchers, we no longer cannot effectively determine for English speakers which recording is human in origin and which is from a machine origin.

Handwriting-like syntheses: w:Recurrent neural networks (RNN) seem are a popular choice for this task.


  1. Recurrent neural network handwriting generation demo at cs.toronto.edu is a demonstration site for publication
  2. Calligrapher.ai - Realistic computer-generated handwriting - The user may control parameters: speed, legibility, stroke width and style. The domain is registered by some organization in Iceland and the website offers no about-page[1st seen in 3]. According to this reddit post Calligrapher.ai is based on Graves' 2013 work, but "adds an w:inference model to allow for sampling latent style vectors (similar to the VAE model used by SketchRNN)".[11]

Handwriting recognition

Singing syntheses[edit | edit source]

As of 2020 the digital sing-alikes may not yet be here, but when we hear a faked singing voice and we cannot hear that it is fake, then we will know. An ability to sing does not seem to add much hostile capabilities compared to the ability to thieve spoken word.



Timeline of synthetic human-like fakes[edit | edit source]

See the #SSFWIKI Mediatheque for viewing media that is or is probably to do with synthetic human-like fakes.

2020's synthetic human-like fakes[edit | edit source]

  • 2021 | crime / fraud | The 2nd publicly known fraud done with a digital sound-alike[1st seen in 1] took place on Friday 2021-01-15. A bank in Hong Kong was manipulated to wire money to numerous bank accounts by using a voice stolen from one of the their client company's directors. They managed to defraud $35 million of the U.A.E. based company's money.[9]. This case came into light when Forbes saw a document where the U.A.E. financial authorities were seeking administrative assistance from the US authorities towards the end of recovering a small portion of the defrauded money that had been sent to bank accounts in the USA.[9]

Reporting on the 2021 digital sound-alike enabled fraud

  • 2020 | Chinese legislation | On January 1 2020 Chinese law requiring that synthetically faked footage should bear a clear notice about its fakeness came into effect. Failure to comply could be considered a w:crime the w:Cyberspace Administration of China (cac.gov.cn) stated on its website. China announced this new law in November 2019.[18] The Chinese government seems to be reserving the right to prosecute both users and w:online video platforms failing to abide by the rules. [19]


2010's synthetic human-like fakes[edit | edit source]


Code of Virginia (TOC) » Title 18.2. Crimes and Offenses Generally » Chapter 8. Crimes Involving Morals and Decency » Article 5. Obscenity and Related Offenses » Section § 18.2-386.2. Unlawful dissemination or sale of images of another; penalty

The section § 18.2-386.2. Unlawful dissemination or sale of images of another; penalty. of Virginia is as follows:

A. Any w:person who, with the w:intent to w:coerce, w:harass, or w:intimidate, w:maliciously w:disseminates or w:sells any videographic or still image created by any means whatsoever that w:depicts another person who is totally w:nude, or in a state of undress so as to expose the w:genitals, pubic area, w:buttocks, or female w:breast, where such person knows or has reason to know that he is not w:licensed or w:authorized to disseminate or sell such w:videographic or w:still image is w:guilty of a Class 1 w:misdemeanor.

For purposes of this subsection, "another person" includes a person whose image was used in creating, adapting, or modifying a videographic or still image with the intent to depict an actual person and who is recognizable as an actual person by the person's w:face, w:likeness, or other distinguishing characteristic.

B. If a person uses w:services of an w:Internet service provider, an electronic mail service provider, or any other information service, system, or access software provider that provides or enables computer access by multiple users to a computer server in committing acts prohibited under this section, such provider shall not be held responsible for violating this section for content provided by another person.

C. Venue for a prosecution under this section may lie in the w:jurisdiction where the unlawful act occurs or where any videographic or still image created by any means whatsoever is produced, reproduced, found, stored, received, or possessed in violation of this section.

D. The provisions of this section shall not preclude prosecution under any other w:statute.[23]

The identical bills were House Bill 2678 presented by w:Delegate w:Marcus Simon to the w:Virginia House of Delegates on January 14 2019 and three day later an identical Senate bill 1736 was introduced to the w:Senate of Virginia by Senator w:Adam Ebbin.

  • 2019 | demonstration | 'Thispersondoesnotexist.com' (since February 2019) by Philip Wang. It showcases a w:StyleGAN at the task of making an endless stream of pictures that look like no-one in particular, but are eerily human-like. Relevancy: certain
w:Google's logo. Google Research demonstrated their sound-like-anyone-machine at the 2018 w:Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS). It requires only 5 seconds of sample to steal a voice.
  • 2018 | controversy / demonstration | The w:deepfakes controversy surfaces where porn videos were doctored utilizing w:deep machine learning so that the face of the actress was replaced by the software's opinion of what another persons face would look like in the same pose and lighting.
w:Adobe Inc.'s logo. We can thank Adobe for publicly demonstrating their sound-like-anyone-machine in 2016 before an implementation was sold to criminal organizations.
#w:Adobe Voco. Adobe Audio Manipulator Sneak Peak with w:Jordan Peele (at Youtube.com). November 2016 demonstration of a Adobe's unreleased sound-like-anyone-machine, the w:Adobe Voco at the w:Adobe MAX 2016 event in w:San Diego, w:California. The original Adobe Voco required 20 minutes of sample to thieve a voice.
  • 2013 | demonstration | At the 2013 SIGGGRAPH w:Activision and USC presented a w:real time computing "Digital Ira" a digital face look-alike of Ari Shapiro, an ICT USC research scientist,[30] utilizing the USC light stage X by Ghosh et al. for both reflectance field and motion capture.[31] The end result both precomputed and real-time rendering with the modernest game w:GPU shown here and looks fairly realistic.

2000's synthetic human-like fakes[edit | edit source]

  • 2009 | movie | A digital look-alike of a younger w:Arnold Schwarzenegger was made for the movie w:Terminator Salvation though the end result was critiqued as unconvincing. Facial geometry was acquired from a 1984 mold of Schwarzenegger.
  • 2009 | demonstration | Paul Debevec: 'Animating a photo-realistic face' at ted.com Debevec et al. presented new digital likenesses, made by w:Image Metrics, this time of actress w:Emily O'Brien whose reflectance was captured with the USC light stage 5. At 00:04:59 you can see two clips, one with the real Emily shot with a real camera and one with a digital look-alike of Emily, shot with a simulation of a camera - Which is which is difficult to tell. Bruce Lawmen was scanned using USC light stage 6 in still position and also recorded running there on a w:treadmill. Many, many digital look-alikes of Bruce are seen running fluently and natural looking at the ending sequence of the TED talk video. [32] Motion looks fairly convincing contrasted to the clunky run in the w:Animatrix: Final Flight of the Osiris which was w:state-of-the-art in 2003 if photorealism was the intention of the w:animators.
Traditional w:BRDF vs. subsurface scattering inclusive BSSRDF i.e. w:Bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function.

An analytical BRDF must take into account the subsurface scattering, or the end result will not pass human testing.
Music video for Bullet by w:Covenant from 2002. Here you can observe the classic "skin looks like cardboard"-bug that stopped the pre-reflectance capture era versions from passing human testing.
  • 2002 | music video | 'Bullet' by Covenant on Youtube by w:Covenant (band) from their album w:Northern Light (Covenant album). Relevancy: Contains the best upper-torso digital look-alike of Eskil Simonsson (vocalist) that their organization could procure at the time. Here you can observe the classic "skin looks like cardboard"-bug (assuming this was not intended) that thwarted efforts to make digital look-alikes that pass human testing before the reflectance capture and dissection in 1999 by w:Paul Debevec et al. at the w:University of Southern California and subsequent development of the "Analytical w:BRDF" (quote-unquote) by ESC Entertainment, a company set up for the sole purpose of making the cinematography for the 2003 films Matrix Reloaded and Matrix Revolutions possible, lead by George Borshukov.

1990's synthetic human-like fakes[edit | edit source]

1970's synthetic human-like fakes[edit | edit source]

w:A Computer Animated Hand is a 1972 short film by w:Edwin Catmull and w:Fred Parke. This was the first time that w:computer-generated imagery was used in film to animate likenesses of moving human appearance.
  • 1976 | movie | w:Futureworld reused parts of A Computer Animated Hand on the big screen.

1960's synthetic human-like fakes[edit | edit source]

1930's synthetic human-like fakes[edit | edit source]

w:Voder demonstration pavillion at the w:1939 New York World's Fair

1770's synthetic human-like fakes[edit | edit source]

A replica of w:Wolfgang von Kempelen's w:Wolfgang von Kempelen's Speaking Machine, built 2007–09 at the Department of w:Phonetics, w:Saarland University, w:Saarbrücken, Germany. This machine added models of the tongue and lips, enabling it to produce w:consonants as well as w:vowels

Footnotes[edit | edit source]

  1. It is terminologically more precise, more inclusive and more useful to talk about 'synthetic terror porn', if we want to talk about things with their real names, than 'synthetic rape porn', because also synthesizing recordings of consentual looking sex scenes can be terroristic in intent.
  2. Whether a suspect can defend against faked synthetic speech that sounds like him/her depends on how up-to-date the judiciary is. If no information and instructions about digital sound-alikes have been given to the judiciary, they likely will not believe the defense of denying that the recording is of the suspect's voice.

Contact information of organizations[edit | edit source]

Please contact these organizations and tell them to work harder against the disinformation weapons


1st seen in[edit | edit source]


References[edit | edit source]

  1. "You Won't Believe What Obama Says In This Video!". w:YouTube. w:BuzzFeed. 2018-04-17. Retrieved 2022-01-05. We're entering an era in which our enemies can make anyone say anything at any point in time.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Debevec, Paul (2000). "Acquiring the reflectance field of a human face". Proceedings of the 27th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques - SIGGRAPH '00. ACM. pp. 145–156. doi:10.1145/344779.344855. ISBN 978-1581132083. Retrieved 2020-06-27.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Inventing Entertainment: The Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies". Memory.loc.gov. w:Library of Congress. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Drew, Harwell (2020-04-16). "An artificial-intelligence first: Voice-mimicking software reportedly used in a major theft". w:washingtonpost.com. w:Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-07-22. Researchers at the cybersecurity firm Symantec said they have found at least three cases of executives’ voices being mimicked to swindle companies. Symantec declined to name the victim companies or say whether the Euler Hermes case was one of them, but it noted that the losses in one of the cases totaled millions of dollars.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Stupp, Catherine (2019-08-30). "Fraudsters Used AI to Mimic CEO's Voice in Unusual Cybercrime Case". w:wsj.com. w:The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2022-01-01.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Damiani, Jesse (2019-09-03). "A Voice Deepfake Was Used To Scam A CEO Out Of $243,000". w:Forbes.com. w:Forbes. Retrieved 2022-01-01. According to a new report in The Wall Street Journal, the CEO of an unnamed UK-based energy firm believed he was on the phone with his boss, the chief executive of firm’s the German parent company, when he followed the orders to immediately transfer €220,000 (approx. $243,000) to the bank account of a Hungarian supplier. In fact, the voice belonged to a fraudster using AI voice technology to spoof the German chief executive. Rüdiger Kirsch of Euler Hermes Group SA, the firm’s insurance company, shared the information with WSJ.
  7. "Fake voices 'help cyber-crooks steal cash'". w:bbc.com. w:BBC. 2019-07-08. Retrieved 2020-07-22.
  8. Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo (2020-07-23). "Listen to This Deepfake Audio Impersonating a CEO in Brazen Fraud Attempt". w:Vice.com. w:Vice (magazine). Retrieved 2022-01-03.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 https://www.forbes.com/sites/thomasbrewster/2021/10/14/huge-bank-fraud-uses-deep-fake-voice-tech-to-steal-millions/
  10. Flatow, Ira (April 4, 2008). "1860 'Phonautograph' Is Earliest Known Recording". NPR. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
  11. https://www.reddit.com/r/MachineLearning/comments/gh9cbg/p_generate_handwriting_with_an_inbrowser/
  12. "What is IWR? (Intelligent Word Recognition)". eFileCabinet. 2016-01-04. Retrieved 2021-09-21.
  13. Rosner, Helen (2021-07-15). "A Haunting New Documentary About Anthony Bourdain". w:The New Yorker. Retrieved 2021-08-25.
  14. https://www.partnershiponai.org/aiincidentdatabase/
  15. Johnson, R.J. (2019-12-30). "Here Are the New California Laws Going Into Effect in 2020". KFI. iHeartMedia. Retrieved 2021-01-23.
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