Synthetic human-like fakes
When it cannot be determined by human testing or media forensics whether some fake voice is a synthetic fake of some person's voice, or is it an actual recording made of that person's actual real voice, it is a pre-recorded digital sound-alike.
Introduction to digital look-alikes
In the cinemas we have seen digital look-alikes for over 15 years. These digital look-alikes have "clothing" (a simulation of clothing is not clothing) or "superhero costumes" and "superbaddie costumes", and they don't need to care about the laws of physics, let alone laws of physiology. It is generally accepted that digital look-alikes made their public debut in the sequels of The Matrix i.e. w:The Matrix Reloaded and w:The Matrix Revolutions released in 2003. It can be considered almost certain, that it was not possible to make these before the year 1999, as the final piece of the puzzle to make a (still) digital look-alike that passes human testing, the reflectance capture over the human face, was made for the first time in 1999 at the w:University of Southern California and was presented to the crème de la crème of the computer graphics field in their annual gathering SIGGRAPH 2000.
The problems with digital look-alikes
Extremely unfortunately for the humankind, organized criminal leagues, that posses the weapons capability of making believable looking synthetic pornography, are producing on industrial production pipelines synthetic terror porn[footnote 1] by animating digital look-alikes and distributing it in the murky Internet in exchange for money stacks that are getting thinner and thinner as time goes by.
These industrially produced pornographic delusions are causing great humane suffering, especially in their direct victims, but they are also tearing our communities and societies apart, sowing blind rage, perceptions of deepening chaos, feelings of powerlessness and provoke violence. This hate illustration increases and strengthens hate thinking, hate speech, hate crimes and tears our fragile social constructions apart and with time perverts humankind's view of humankind into an almost unrecognizable shape, unless we interfere with resolve.
List of possible naked digital look-alike attacks
- The classic "portrayal of as if in involuntary sex"-attack. (Digital look-alike "cries")
- "Sexual preference alteration"-attack. (Digital look-alike "smiles")
- "Cutting / beating"-attack (Constructs a deceptive history for genuine scars)
- "Mutilation"-attack (Digital look-alike "dies")
- "Unconscious and injected"-attack (Digital look-alike gets "disease")
Age analysis and rejuvenating and aging syntheses
- 'An Overview of Two Age Synthesis and Estimation Techniques' at arxiv.org (.pdf), submitted for review on 2020-01-26
- 'Dual Reference Age Synthesis' at sciencedirect.com (preprint at arxiv.org) published on 2020-10-21 in w:Neurocomputing (journal)
- 'A simple automatic facial aging/rejuvenating synthesis method' at ieeexplore.ieee.org read free at researchgate.net, published at the proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics
- 'Age Synthesis and Estimation via Faces: A Survey' at ieeexplore.ieee.org (paywall) at researchgate.net published November 2010
Temporal limit of digital look-alikes
w:History of film technology has information about where the border is.
Digital look-alikes cannot be used to attack people who existed before the technological invention of film. For moving pictures the breakthrough is attributed to w:Auguste and Louis Lumière's w:Cinematograph premiered in Paris on 28 December 1895, though this was only the commercial and popular breakthrough, as even earlier moving pictures exist. (adapted from w:History of film)
The w:Kinetoscope is an even earlier motion picture exhibition device. A prototype for the Kinetoscope was shown to a convention of the National Federation of Women's Clubs on May 20, 1891. The first public demonstration of the Kinetoscope was held at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893. (Wikipedia)
Living people can defend[footnote 2] themselves against digital sound-alike by denying the things the digital sound-alike says if they are presented to the target, but dead people cannot. Digital sound-alikes offer criminals new disinformation attack vectors and wreak havoc on provability.
For these reasons the bannable raw materials i.e. covert voice models should be prohibited by law in order to protect humans from abuse by criminal parties.
Documented digital sound-alike attacks
- Sound like anyone technology found its way to the hands of criminals as in 2019 Symantec researchers knew of 3 cases where technology has been used for w:crime
- "Fake voices 'help cyber-crooks steal cash'" at bbc.com July 2019 reporting 
- "An artificial-intelligence first: Voice-mimicking software reportedly used in a major theft" at washingtonpost.com documents a w:fraud committed with digital sound-like-anyone-machine, July 2019 reporting.
'Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis' 2018 by Google Research (external transclusion)
- In the 2018 at the w:Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS) the work 'Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis' (at arXiv.org) was presented. The pre-trained model is able to steal voices from a sample of only 5 seconds with almost convincing results
Observe how good the "VCTK p240" system is at deceiving to think that it is a person that is doing the talking.
The Iframe above is transcluded from 'Audio samples from "Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis"' at google.gituhub.io, the audio samples of a sound-like-anyone machine presented as at the 2018 w:NeurIPS conference by Google researchers.
The to the right video 'This AI Clones Your Voice After Listening for 5 Seconds' by '2 minute papers' at YouTube describes the voice thieving machine presented by Google Research in w:NeurIPS 2018.
As of 2020 the digital sing-alikes may not yet be here, but when we hear a faked singing voice and we cannot hear that it is fake, then we will know. An ability to sing does not seem to add much hostile capabilities compared to the ability to thieve spoken word.
- 'Fast and High-Quality Singing Voice Synthesis System based on Convolutional Neural Networks' at arxiv.org, a 2019 singing voice synthesis technique using w:convolutional neural networks (CNN). Accepted into the 2020 International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP).
- 'State of art of real-time singing voice synthesis' at compmus.ime.usp.br presented at the 2019 17th Brazilian Symposium on Computer Music
- 'Synthesis and expressive transformation of singing voice' at theses.fr as .pdf a 2017 doctorate thesis by Luc Ardaillon
- 'Synthesis of the Singing Voice by Performance Sampling and Spectral Models' at mtg.upf.edu, a 2007 journal article in the w:IEEE Signal Processing Society's Signal Processing Magazine
- 'Speech-to-Singing Synthesis: Converting Speaking Voices to Singing Voices by Controlling Acoustic Features Unique to Singing Voices' at researchgate.net, a November 2007 paper published in the IEEE conference on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics
Example of a hypothetical 4-victim digital sound-alike attack
A very simple example of a digital sound-alike attack is as follows:
Someone puts a digital sound-alike to call somebody's voicemail from an unknown number and to speak for example illegal threats. In this example there are at least two victims:
- Victim #1 - The person whose voice has been stolen into a covert model and a digital sound-alike made from it to frame them for crimes
- Victim #2 - The person to whom the illegal threat is presented in a recorded form by a digital sound-alike that deceptively sounds like victim #1
- Victim #3 - It could also be viewed that victim #3 is our law enforcement systems as they are put to chase after and interrogate the innocent victim #1
- Victim #4 - Our judiciary which prosecutes and possibly convicts the innocent victim #1.
Thus it is high time to act and to criminalize the covert modeling of human voice!
Examples of speech synthesis software not quite able to fool a human yet
Some other contenders to create digital sound-alikes are though, as of 2019, their speech synthesis in most use scenarios does not yet fool a human because the results contain tell tale signs that give it away as a speech synthesizer.
- Lyrebird.ai (listen)
- CandyVoice.com (test with your choice of text)
- Merlin, a w:neural network based speech synthesis system by the Centre for Speech Technology Research at the w:University of Edinburgh
- 'Neural Voice Cloning with a Few Samples at papers.nips.cc, w:Baidu Research'es shot at sound-like-anyone-machine did not convince in 2018
Reporting on the sound-like-anyone-machines
- "Artificial Intelligence Can Now Copy Your Voice: What Does That Mean For Humans?" May 2019 reporting at forbes.com on w:Baidu Research'es attempt at the sound-like-anyone-machine demonstrated at the 2018 w:NeurIPS conference.
Temporal limit of digital sound-alikes
The temporal limit of whom, dead or living, the digital sound-alikes can attack is defined by the w:history of sound recording.
The phonautograph is the earliest known device for recording w:sound. Previously, tracings had been obtained of the sound-producing vibratory motions of w:tuning forks and other objects by physical contact with them, but not of actual sound waves as they propagated through air or other media. Invented by Frenchman W:Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, it was patented on March 25, 1857.
Apparently, it did not occur to anyone before the 1870s that the recordings, called phonautograms, contained enough information about the sound that they could, in theory, be used to recreate it. Because the phonautogram tracing was an insubstantial two-dimensional line, direct physical playback was impossible in any case. Several phonautograms recorded before 1861 were successfully played as sound in 2008 by optically scanning them and using a computer to process the scans into digital audio files. (Wikipedia)
w:Chatbots have existed for a longer time, but only now armed with AI they are becoming more deceiving.
Reporting / announcements
- 'A college kid’s fake, AI-generated blog fooled tens of thousands. This is how he made it.' at technologyreview.com August 2020 reporting in the w:MIT Technology Review by Karen Hao about GPT-3.
- 'OpenAI’s latest AI text generator GPT-3 amazes early adopters' at siliconangle.com July 2020 reporting on GPT-3
- OpenAI releases the full version of GPT-2 at openai.com in August 2019
- 'OpenAI releases curtailed version of GPT-2 language model' at venturebeat.com, August 2019 reporting on the original release of of the curtailed version of GPT-2
- "Detection of Fake and False News (Text Analysis): Approaches and CNN as Deep Learning Model" at analyticsteps.com, a 2019 summmary written by Shubham Panth.
Countermeasures against synthetic human-like fakes
Organizations against synthetic human-like fakes
- w:DARPA DARPA program: 'Media Forensics' (MediFor) at darpa.mil aims to develop technologies for the automated assessment of the integrity of an image or video and integrating these in an end-to-end media forensics platform. Archive.org first crawled their homepage in June 2016.
- DARPA program: 'Semantic Forensics' (SemaFor) at darpa.mil aims to counter synthetic disinformation by developing systems for detecting semantic inconsistencies in forged media. They state that they hope to create technologies that "will help identify, deter, and understand adversary disinformation campaigns". More information at w:Duke University's Research Funding database: Semantic Forensics (SemaFor) at researchfunding.duke.edu and some at Semantic Forensics grant opportunity (closed Nov 2019) at grants.gov. Archive.org first cralwed their website in November 2019
- w:University of Colorado Denver is the home of the National Center for Media Forensics at artsandmedia.ucdenver.edu at the w:University of Colorado Denver offers a Master's degree program, training courses and scientific basic and applied research. Faculty staff at the NCMF
- w:SAG-AFTRA SAG-AFTRA ACTION ALERT: "Support California Bill to End Deepfake Porn" at sagaftra.org endorses California Senate Bill SB 564 introduced to the w:California State Senate by w:California w:Senator Connie Leyva in Feb 2019.
Events against synthetic human-like fakes
- 2020 | w:Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) | 2020 Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition: 'Workshop on Media Forensics' at sites.google.com, a June 2020 workshop at the w:Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.
- 2020 | The winners of the Deepfake Detection Challenge reach 82% accuracy in detecting synthetic human-like fakes
- 2019 | At the annual Finnish w:Ministry of Defence's Scientific Advisory Board for Defence (MATINE) public research seminar, a research group presented their work 'Synteettisen median tunnistus'' at defmin.fi (Recognizing synthetic media). They developed on earlier work on how to automatically detect synthetic human-like fakes and their work was funded with a grant from MATINE.
- 2019 | w:NeurIPS | w:Facebook, Inc. "Facebook AI Launches Its Deepfake Detection Challenge" at spectrum.ieee.org w:IEEE Spectrum. More reporting at "Facebook, Microsoft, and others launch Deepfake Detection Challenge" at venturebeat.com
- 2019 | CVPR | 2019 CVPR: 'Workshop on Media Forensics'
- Annual (?) | w:National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) | NIST: 'Media Forensics Challenge' at nist.gov, an iterative research challenge by the w:National Institute of Standards and Technology with the ongoing challenge being the 2nd one in action. the evaluation criteria for the 2019 iteration are being formed
- 2018 | w:European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV) ECCV 2018: 'Workshop on Objectionable Content and Misinformation' at sites.google.com, a workshop at the 2018 w:European Conference on Computer Vision in w:Munich had focus on objectionable content detection e.g. w:nudity, w:pornography, w:violence, w:hate, w:children exploitation and w:terrorism among others and to address misinformation problems when people are fed w:disinformation and they punt it on as misinformation. Announced topics included w:image/video forensics, w:detection/w:analysis/w:understanding of w:fake images/videos, w:misinformation detection/understanding: mono-modal and w:multi-modal, adversarial technologies and detection/understanding of objectionable content
- 2018 | w:NIST NIST 'Media Forensics Challenge 2018' at nist.gov was the second annual evaluation to support research and help advance the state of the art for image and video forensics technologies – technologies that determine the region and type of manipulations in imagery (image/video data) and the phylogenic process that modified the imagery.
Studies against synthetic human-like fakes
- 'Media Forensics and DeepFakes: an overview' at arXiv.org (as .pdf at arXiv.org), a 2020 review on the subject of digital look-alikes and media forensics
- 'DEEPFAKES: False pornography is here and the law cannot protect you' at scholarship.law.duke.edu by Douglas Harris, published in Duke Law & Technology Review - Volume 17 on 2019-01-05 by w:Duke University w:Duke University School of Law
Search for more
Companies against synthetic human-like fakes
- Cyabra.com is an AI-based system that helps organizations be on the guard against disinformation attacks[1st seen in 1]. Reuters.com reporting from July 2020.
SSF! wiki proposed countermeasure to synthetic porn: Adequate Porn Watcher AI (transcluded)
Transcluded main contents from Adequate Porn Watcher AI (concept)
Adequate Porn Watcher AI (APW_AI) is an w:AI and w:computer vision concept to search for any and all porn that should not be by watching and modeling all porn ever found on the w:Internet thus effectively protecting humans by exposing covert naked digital look-alike attacks and also other contraband.
The method and the effect
The method by which APW_AI would be providing safety and security to its users, is that they can briefly upload a model they've gotten of themselves and then the APW_AI will either say nothing matching found or it will be of the opinion that something matching found.
If people are able to check whether there is synthetic porn that looks like themselves, this causes synthetic hate-illustration industrialists' product lose destructive potential and the attacks that happen are less destructive as they are exposed by the APW_AI and thus decimate the monetary value of these disinformation weapons to the criminals.
If you feel comfortable to leave your model with the good people at the benefactor for safekeeping you get alerted and help if you ever get attacked with a synthetic porn attack.
Looking up if matches are found for anyone else's model is forbidden and this should probably be enforced with a facial w:biometric w:facial recognition system app that checks that the model you want checked is yours and that you are awake.
Definition of adequacy
An adequate implementation should be nearly free of false positives, very good at finding true positives and able to process more porn than is ever uploaded.
What about the people in the porn-industry?
People who openly do porn can help by opting-in to help in the development by providing training material and material to test the AI on. People and companies who help in training the AI naturally get credited for their help.
There are of course lots of people-questions to this and those questions need to be identified by professionals of psychology and social sciences.
The idea of APW_AI occurred to User:Juho Kunsola on Friday 2019-07-12. Subsequently (the next day) this discovery caused the scrapping of the plea to ban convert modeling of human appearance as that would have rendered APW_AI legally impossible.
Possible legal response: Outlawing digital sound-alikes (transcluded)
Transcluded from Juho's proposal on banning digital sound-alikes
§1 Covert modeling of a human voice
Acquiring such a model of a human's voice, that deceptively resembles some dead or living person's voice model of human voice, possession, purchase, sale, yielding, import and export without the express consent of the target is punishable.
§2 Application of covert voice models
Producing and making available media from a covert voice model is punishable.
§3 Aggravated application of covert voice models
If produced media is for a purpose to
- frame a human target or targets for crimes
- to attempt extortion or
- to defame the target,
the crime should be judged as aggravated.
Timeline of synthetic human-like fakes
2020's synthetic human-like fakes
- 2020 | counter-measure | On 2020-11-18 the w:Partnership on AI introduced the 'AI Incident Database' at incidentdatabase.ai.
- 2020 | reporting | "Deepfake porn is now mainstream. And major sites are cashing in" at wired.co.uk by Matt Burgess. Published August 2020.
- 2020 | demonstration | Moondisaster.org (full film embedded in website) project by the Center for Advanced Virtuality of the w:MIT published in July 2020, makes use of various methods of making a synthetic human-like fake. Alternative place to watch: In Event of Moon Disaster - FULL FILM at youtube.com
- 2020 | US state law |  the w:California w:US state law AB-602 came into effect banning the manufacturing and w:digital distribution of synthetic pornography without the w:consent of the people depicted. AB-602 provides victims of synthetic pornography with w:injunctive relief and poses legal threats of w:statutory and w:punitive damages on w:criminals making or distributing synthetic pornography without consent. The bill AB-602 was signed into law by California w:Governor w:Gavin Newsom on October 3 2019 and was authored by w:California State Assembly member w:Marc Berman.
- 2020 | Chinese legislation | On January 1 2020 Chinese law requiring that synthetically faked footage should bear a clear notice about its fakeness came into effect. Failure to comply could be considered a w:crime the w:Cyberspace Administration of China stated on its website. China announced this new law in November 2019. The Chinese government seems to be reserving the right to prosecute both users and w:online video platforms failing to abide by the rules. 
2010's synthetic human-like fakes
- 2019 | demonstration | In September 2019 w:Yle, the Finnish w:public broadcasting company, aired a result of experimental w:journalism, a deepfake of the President in office w:Sauli Niinistö in its main news broadcast for the purpose of highlighting the advancing disinformation technology and problems that arise from it.
- 2019 | US state law | Since September 1 2019 w:Texas senate bill SB 751 w:amendments to the election code came into effect, giving w:candidates in w:elections a 30-day protection period to the elections during which making and distributing digital look-alikes or synthetic fakes of the candidates is an offense. The law text defines the subject of the law as "a video, created with the intent to deceive, that appears to depict a real person performing an action that did not occur in reality"
- 2019 | US state law |  w:Virginia w:has criminalized the sale and dissemination of unauthorized synthetic pornography, but not the manufacture., as § 18.2-386.2 titled 'Unlawful dissemination or sale of images of another; penalty.' became part of the w:Code of Virginia. The law text states: "Any person who, with the w:intent to w:coerce, w:harass, or w:intimidate, w:maliciously w:disseminates or w:sells any videographic or still image created by any means whatsoever that depicts another person who is totally [w:[nudity|nude]], or in a state of undress so as to expose the w:genitals, pubic area, w:buttocks, or female w:breast, where such person knows or has reason to know that he is not w:licensed or w:authorized to disseminate or sell such videographic or still image is guilty of a Class 1 w:misdemeanor.". The identical bills were House Bill 2678 presented by w:Delegate w:Marcus Simon to the w:Virginia House of Delegates on January 14 2019 and three day later an identical Senate bill 1736 was introduced to the w:Senate of Virginia by Senator w:Adam Ebbin.
- 2019 | science and demonstration | 'Speech2Face: Learning the Face Behind a Voice' at arXiv.org a system for generating likely facial features based on the voice of a person, presented by the w:MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the 2019 w:CVPR. Speech2Face at github.com This may develop to something that really causes problems. "Speech2Face: Neural Network Predicts the Face Behind a Voice" reporing at neurohive.io, "Speech2Face Sees Voices and Hears Faces: Dreams Come True with AI" reporting at belitsoft.com
- 2019 | crime | w:Fraud with digital sound-alike technology surfaced in 2019. See 'An artificial-intelligence first: Voice-mimicking software reportedly used in a major theft', a 2019 Washington Post article or 'A Voice Deepfake Was Used To Scam A CEO Out Of $243,000' at Forbes.com (2019-09-03)
- 2019 | demonstration | 'Which Face is real?' at whichfaceisreal.com is an easily unnerving game by Carl Bergstrom and Jevin West where you need to try to distinguish from a pair of photos which is real and which is not. A part of the "tools" of the Calling Bullshit course taught at the w:University of Washington. Relevancy: certain
- 2019 | demonstration | 'Thispersondoesnotexist.com' (since February 2019) by Philip Wang. It showcases a w:StyleGAN at the task of making an endless stream of pictures that look like no-one in particular, but are eerily human-like. Relevancy: certain
- 2018 | counter-measure | In September 2018 Google added “involuntary synthetic pornographic imagery” to its ban list, allowing anyone to request the search engine block results that falsely depict them as “nude or in a sexually explicit situation.” Information on removing involuntary fake pornography from Google at support.google.com if it shows up in Google and the form to request removing involuntary fake pornography at support.google.com, select "I want to remove: A fake nude or sexually explicit picture or video of myself"
- 2018 | science and demonstration | The work 'Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis' (at arXiv.org) was presented at the 2018 w:Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS). The pre-trained model is able to steal voices from a sample of only 5 seconds with almost convincing results.
- 2018 | demonstration | At the 2018 w:World Internet Conference in w:Wuzhen the w:Xinhua News Agency presented two digital look-alikes made to the resemblance of its real news anchors Qiu Hao (w:Chinese language) and Zhang Zhao (w:English language). The digital look-alikes were made in conjunction with w:Sogou. Neither the w:speech synthesis used nor the gesturing of the digital look-alike anchors were good enough to deceive the watcher to mistake them for real humans imaged with a TV camera.
- 2018 | controversy / demonstration | The w:deepfakes controversy surfaces where porn videos were doctored utilizing w:deep machine learning so that the face of the actress was replaced by the software's opinion of what another persons face would look like in the same pose and lighting.
- 2017 | science | 'Synthesizing Obama: Learning Lip Sync from Audio' at grail.cs.washington.edu. In SIGGRAPH 2017 by Supasorn Suwajanakorn et al. of the w:University of Washington presented an audio driven digital look-alike of upper torso of Barack Obama. It was driven only by a voice track as source data for the animation after the training phase to acquire w:lip sync and wider facial information from w:training material consisting 2D videos with audio had been completed. Relevancy: certain
- 2016 | movie | w:Rogue One is a Star Wars film for which digital look-alikes of actors w:Peter Cushing and w:Carrie Fisher were made. In the film their appearance would appear to be of same age as the actors were during the filming of the original 1977 w:Star Wars (film) film.
- 2016 | science / demonstration | w:DeepMind's w:WaveNet owned by w:Google also demonstrated ability to steal people's voices
- 2016 | science and demonstration | w:Adobe Inc. publicly demonstrates w:Adobe Voco, a sound-like-anyone machine '#VoCo. Adobe Audio Manipulator Sneak Peak with Jordan Peele | Adobe Creative Cloud' on Youtube. THe original Adobe Voco required 20 minutes of sample to thieve a voice. Relevancy: certain.
- 2016 | science | 'Face2Face: Real-time Face Capture and Reenactment of RGB Videos' at Niessnerlab.org A paper (with videos) on the semi-real-time 2D video manipulation with gesture forcing and lip sync forcing synthesis by Thies et al, Stanford. Relevancy: certain
- 2016 | music video | 'Plug' by Kube at youtube.com - A 2016 music video by w:Kube (rapper) (w:fi:Kube), that shows deepfake-like technology this early. Video was uploaded on 2016-09-15 and is directed by Faruk Nazeri.
- 2015 | movie | In the w:Furious 7 a digital look-alike made of the actor w:Paul Walker who died in an accident during the filming was done by w:Weta Digital to enable the completion of the film.
- 2014 | science | w:Ian Goodfellow et al. presented the principles of a w:generative adversarial network. GANs made the headlines in early 2018 with the w:deepfakes controversies.
- 2013 | demonstration | At the 2013 SIGGGRAPH w:Activision and USC presented a w:real time computing "Digital Ira" a digital face look-alike of Ari Shapiro, an ICT USC research scientist, utilizing the USC light stage X by Ghosh et al. for both reflectance field and motion capture. The end result both precomputed and real-time rendering with the modernest game w:GPU shown here and looks fairly realistic.
- 2013 | demonstration | A 'Scanning and Printing a 3D Portrait of President Barack Obama' at ict.usc.edu. A 7D model and a 3D bust was made of President Obama with his consent. Relevancy: Relevancy: certain
2000's synthetic human-like fakes
- 2010 | movie | w:Walt Disney Pictures released a sci-fi sequel entitled w:Tron: Legacy with a digitally rejuvenated digital look-alike made of the actor w:Jeff Bridges playing the w:antagonist w:CLU.
- 2009 | movie | A digital look-alike of a younger w:Arnold Schwarzenegger was made for the movie w:Terminator Salvation though the end result was critiqued as unconvincing. Facial geometry was acquired from a 1984 mold of Schwarzenegger.
- 2009 | demonstration | Paul Debevec: 'Animating a photo-realistic face' at ted.com Debevec et al. presented new digital likenesses, made by w:Image Metrics, this time of actress w:Emily O'Brien whose reflectance was captured with the USC light stage 5. At 00:04:59 you can see two clips, one with the real Emily shot with a real camera and one with a digital look-alike of Emily, shot with a simulation of a camera - Which is which is difficult to tell. Bruce Lawmen was scanned using USC light stage 6 in still position and also recorded running there on a w:treadmill. Many, many digital look-alikes of Bruce are seen running fluently and natural looking at the ending sequence of the TED talk video.  Motion looks fairly convincing contrasted to the clunky run in the w:Animatrix: Final Flight of the Osiris which was w:state-of-the-art in 2003 if photorealism was the intention of the w:animators.
- 2004 | movie | The w:Spider-man 2 (and w:Spider-man 3, 2007) films. Relevancy: The films include a digital look-alike made of actor w:Tobey Maguire by w:Sony Pictures Imageworks.
- 2003 | short film | w:The Animatrix: Final Flight of the Osiris a w:state-of-the-art want-to-be human likenesses not quite fooling the watcher made by w:Square Pictures.
- 2003 | movie(s) | The w:Matrix Reloaded and w:Matrix Revolutions films. Relevancy: First public display of digital look-alikes that are virtually indistinguishable from the real actors. 'Universal Capture - Image-based Facial Animation for "The Matrix Reloaded"' at researchgate.net (2003)
- 2002 | music video | 'Bullet' by Covenant on Youtube by w:Covenant (band) from their album w:Northern Light (Covenant album). Relevancy: Contains the best upper-torso digital look-alike of Eskil Simonsson (vocalist) that their organization could procure at the time. Here you can observe the classic "skin looks like cardboard"-bug (assuming this was not intended) that thwarted efforts to make digital look-alikes that pass human testing before the reflectance capture and dissection in 1999 by w:Paul Debevec et al. at the w:University of Southern California and subsequent development of the "Analytical w:BRDF" (quote-unquote) by ESC Entertainment, a company set up for the sole purpose of making the cinematography for the 2003 films Matrix Reloaded and Matrix Revolutions possible, lead by George Borshukov.
1990's synthetic human-like fakes
- 1999 | science | 'Acquiring the reflectance field of a human face' paper at dl.acm.org w:Paul Debevec et al. of w:USC did the first known reflectance capture over the human face with their extremely simple w:light stage. They presented their method and results in w:SIGGRAPH 2000. The scientific breakthrough required finding the w:subsurface light component (the simulation models are glowing from within slightly) which can be found using knowledge that light that is reflected from the oil-to-air layer retains its w:Polarization (waves) and the subsurface light loses its polarization. So equipped only with a movable light source, movable video camera, 2 polarizers and a computer program doing extremely simple math and the last piece required to reach photorealism was acquired.
- 1999 | institute founded | The w:Institute for Creative Technologies was founded by the w:United States Army in the w:University of Southern California. It collaborates with the w:United States Army Futures Command, w:United States Army Combat Capabilities Development Command, w:Combat Capabilities Development Command Soldier Center and w:United States Army Research Laboratory.. In 2016 w:Hao Li was appointed to direct the institute.
- 1994 | movie | w:The Crow (1994 film) was the first film production to make use of w:digital compositing of a computer simulated representation of a face onto scenes filmed using a w:body double. Necessity was the muse as the actor w:Brandon Lee portraying the protagonist was tragically killed accidentally on-stage.
1970's synthetic human-like fakes
- 1976 | movie | w:Futureworld reused parts of A Computer Animated Hand on the big screen.
- 1972 | entertainment | 'A Computer Animated Hand' on Vimeo. w:A Computer Animated Hand by w:Edwin Catmull and w:Fred Parke. Relevancy: This was the first time that w:computer-generated imagery was used in film to animate moving human-like appearance.
- 1971 | science | 'Images de synthèse : palme de la longévité pour l’ombrage de Gouraud' (still photos). w:Henri Gouraud (computer scientist) made the first w:Computer graphics w:geometry w:digitization and representation of a human face. Modeling was his wife Sylvie Gouraud. The 3D model was a simple w:wire-frame model and he applied w:Gouraud shading to produce the first known representation of human-likeness on computer. 
1770's synthetic human-like fakes
- 1791 | science | w:Wolfgang von Kempelen's Speaking Machine of w:Wolfgang von Kempelen of w:Pressburg, w:Hungary, described in a 1791 paper was w:bellows-operated. This machine added models of the tongue and lips, enabling it to produce w:consonants as well as w:vowels. (based on w:Speech synthesis#History)
- 1779 | science / discovery | w:Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein won the first prize in a competition announced by the w:Russian Academy of Sciences for models he built of the human w:vocal tract that could produce the five long w:vowel sounds. (Based on w:Speech synthesis#History)
- It is terminologically more precise, more inclusive and more useful to talk about 'synthetic terror porn', if we want to talk about things with their real names, than 'synthetic rape porn', because also synthesizing recordings of consentual looking sex scenes can be terroristic in intent.
- Whether a suspect can defend against faked synthetic speech that sounds like him/her depends on how up-to-date the judiciary is. If no information and instructions about digital sound-alikes have been given to the judiciary, they likely will not believe the defense of denying that the recording is of the suspect's voice.
1st seen in
- Debevec, Paul (2000). "Acquiring the reflectance field of a human face". Proceedings of the 27th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques - SIGGRAPH '00. ACM. pp. 145–156. doi:10.1145/344779.344855. ISBN 978-1581132083. Retrieved 2020-06-27.
- "Inventing Entertainment: The Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies". Memory.loc.gov. w:Library of Congress. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
- "Fake voices 'help cyber-crooks steal cash'". w:bbc.com. w:BBC. 2019-07-08. Retrieved 2020-07-22.
- Drew, Harwell (2020-04-16). "An artificial-intelligence first: Voice-mimicking software reportedly used in a major theft". w:washingtonpost.com. w:Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-07-22.
- Flatow, Ira (April 4, 2008). "1860 'Phonautograph' Is Earliest Known Recording". NPR. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20191108090036/https://www.darpa.mil/program/semantic-forensics November
- Johnson, R.J. (2019-12-30). "Here Are the New California Laws Going Into Effect in 2020". KFI. iHeartMedia. Retrieved 2021-01-23.
- Mihalcik, Carrie (2019-10-04). "California laws seek to crack down on deepfakes in politics and porn". w:cnet.com. w:CNET. Retrieved 2021-01-23.
- "China seeks to root out fake news and deepfakes with new online content rules". w:Reuters.com. w:Reuters. 2019-11-29. Retrieved 2021-01-23.
- Statt, Nick (2019-11-29). "China makes it a criminal offense to publish deepfakes or fake news without disclosure". w:The Verge. Retrieved 2021-01-23.
"Relating to the creation of a criminal offense for fabricating a deceptive video with intent to influence the outcome of an election". w:Texas. 2019-06-14. Retrieved 2021-01-23.
In this section, "deep fake video" means a video, created with the intent to deceive, that appears to depict a real person performing an action that did not occur in reality
- "New state laws go into effect July 1".
- "§ 18.2-386.2. Unlawful dissemination or sale of images of another; penalty". w:Virginia. Retrieved 2021-01-23.
- "NVIDIA Open-Sources Hyper-Realistic Face Generator StyleGAN". Medium.com. 2019-02-09. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
Harwell, Drew (2018-12-30). "Fake-porn videos are being weaponized to harass and humiliate women: 'Everybody is a potential target'". w:The Washington Post. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
In September [of 2018], Google added “involuntary synthetic pornographic imagery” to its ban list
- Kuo, Lily (2018-11-09). "World's first AI news anchor unveiled in China". Retrieved 2020-07-13.
- Hamilton, Isobel Asher (2018-11-09). "China created what it claims is the first AI news anchor — watch it in action here". Retrieved 2020-07-13.
- Suwajanakorn, Supasorn; Seitz, Steven; Kemelmacher-Shlizerman, Ira (2017), Synthesizing Obama: Learning Lip Sync from Audio, University of Washington, retrieved 2020-07-13
- Giardina, Carolyn (2015-03-25). "'Furious 7' and How Peter Jackson's Weta Created Digital Paul Walker". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
- ReForm - Hollywood's Creating Digital Clones (youtube). The Creators Project. 2020-07-13.
- Debevec, Paul. "Digital Ira SIGGRAPH 2013 Real-Time Live". Retrieved 2017-07-13.
- In this TED talk video at 00:04:59 you can see two clips, one with the real Emily shot with a real camera and one with a digital look-alike of Emily, shot with a simulation of a camera - Which is which is difficult to tell. Bruce Lawmen was scanned using USC light stage 6 in still position and also recorded running there on a w:treadmill. Many, many digital look-alikes of Bruce are seen running fluently and natural looking at the ending sequence of the TED talk video.
- Pighin, Frédéric. "Siggraph 2005 Digital Face Cloning Course Notes" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-06-26.
- "Images de synthèse : palme de la longévité pour l'ombrage de Gouraud".
- Mechanismus der menschlichen Sprache nebst der Beschreibung seiner sprechenden Maschine ("Mechanism of the human speech with description of its speaking machine", J. B. Degen, Wien).
- History and Development of Speech Synthesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Retrieved on November 4, 2006